A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T |U | V | W | X | Y | Z


A Skills -  Gymnastics has a different range of skills and each skill has a value that lies from A to E.  This value is determined by the complexity of the skill in matter. “A” skills are considered simplest and include drills like handstands on beams, kips on bars, and cartwheels.     

A-score - Under the present Code of Points, this score computes the gymnast's counted skills, grouping, and EGR. Theoretically, the A-score can be unlimited, based on the skills the gymnast has.

AA - Short form for all-around.

AAU Gymnastics - Refers to a gymnastics league, which is quite different from the USA Gymnastics League. This league usually has kinder scoring and is less intense.     


AB -  A scoring short form for uneven bars, from the term asymmetric bars.

Abduction - Refers to gymnastics or strength training and the particular abductor weight machines or workouts, which are utilized to boost the flexibility of the legs and toughen the muscles pulling the legs apart into a straddle split.

Acro - Abbreviation for Acrobatic Gymnastics that combines the magnificence of dance and the power of gymnastics in a partner game that highlights grace, power, litheness, and thrill.     

Acro Series -  A combination of acrobatic gymnastics elements like tumbling skills, which is usually carried out on the floor or beam.

Acrobatic Gymnastics - Gymnastic discipline, which focuses on tumbling and using bodies of each other to do skills.  It includes 5 events such as men's pair, women’s pair, men's group, women’s group, and mixed pair.

Adduction - Refers to body motions such as the limbs, hand, fingers, or toes motion in the coronal plane of movement. In adduction, the limb or hand comes near or crossways the midline of the body, or the fingers or toes collectively.

Aerial - A stunt wherein the gymnast turns totally over in the air without touching the equipment with his hands.

Aerial front walkover - A skill executed in which none of the hands touches the floor or the apparatus. Generally, a step-out skill or landing on two feet.

Aerial walkover - Refers to a front aerial which is an acrobatic movement executed by a total forward revolution of the body without touching the floor.

Agonist Muscle - In the legs, arms, and torso, muscles are arranged in opposite pairs, generally, the main moving muscle is known as the primer or agonist.

Air Floor - An inflated tumbling mat, which provides a bouncier jump back than a rod platform.

All-Around - A term wherein a singular gymnast competes (and scored in) on all 4 (women) or 6 (men) apparatus in one continuous meet.

Amanar - The women's amanar is a talent in the vault of artistic gymnastics. The Yurchenko family consists of a back handspring onto the vaulting platform, roundoff onto the springboard, and into 2½ twists in a back layout salto off the table owns the vault.

Amplitude - This term refers to the height or spectacular execution of a particular skill. When an athlete carries out a skill bigger than other athletes usually carries out a similar skill it is said to have a lot of amplitude.

Apparatus - One of the several types of equipment used in gymnastics contests.

Arabesque - A body position where the performer stands on one leg, while his other leg is extended at the back of the body, with both knees straight while the back is curved and the chest/torso is perpendicular.

Arabian - Kinds of salto, which begins out with a backward entry into a half twist, starting straight away after takeoff, and then carry on into a front flip.

Arabian Double - Airborne skill wherein the athlete takes off of both feet, does a half twist, and then completes two full front flips before landing.

Arch Position - When the body of a gymnast is curved backward, it is considered an arch position.

Arch Ups - When gymnasts lie on the stomach in an arch position while lifting both the hands and feet simultaneously together.

Artistic Gymnastics - A gymnastic discipline, which is performed upon any kind of apparatus.

Artistry - The gymnast's ability to change the composition from a simple routine into an artistic performance.


B-score - Under the present Code of Points, this score evaluates the execution of gymnasts based on their artistry and technique. The judges make deductions from the 10.0 base score.    

BB - The English short form for the event in gymnastics scoring is referred to as BB.     

Back Flip - It is also known as a back-tuck, somi, or salto, generally, the best way to show off your flexibility and quickness. During a backflip, the body of the gymnast makes a complete 361-degree rotation in the air. In a backflip, the body rotates opposite in a face-first direction.     

Back Handspring - A skill wherein gymnasts jump reach for the floor and kick over with the legs together at the same time.     

Back Handspring Step out - The back handspring variation, usually executed on the balance beam, which is known as the "back handspring step-out". The gymnast in this variation generally splits the legs ahead of takeoff, gets a complete split when inverted, and lands 1 foot at a time.     

Back Handspring Two foot - Perhaps executed alone (generally on beam) or in a tumbling pass.  Arms above the head, the gymnast jumps toward the back while arching the back until the hands touch the ground while the arms are straight.  The gymnast moves forward the hands and snaps the torso and hips into a vacant position and lands on both feet.

Back Hip circle - Refers to men's and women's artistic gymnastics elements. Generally, executed on the uneven bars or high bar, sometimes on the balance beam as well. It is a 360◦ circle moving at the back around the bar, beginning and finishing in front of support.

Back Limber - In a floor routine, it is considered a unique skill in gymnastics. It generally resembles a back handspring. In this skill, the gymnast must ensure his hips go up and try to kick his feet over. He will simply fall straight back down.  

Back Pass - Direct link of minimum two or more backward acro skills in which one is a flight or aerial skill.     

Back Somersault - An acrobatic workout in which a gymnast's body rotates 360° around a straight axis with the feet passing above the head. It can be executed forwards, backward, or sideways and can be performed in the air or on the ground.

Back Somie/Back Salto Dismount - A somersaulting get down off beam, parallel bars, rings, bars, or even pommel horse utilizing a back aerial somersault.     

Back Twist and variations - Gymnast bounces back into the air and does a half twist up to three full twists while carrying out at least 1 back somersault in a tucked or layout position.     

Back Walkover - Gymnast begins with the leading leg in front, arches toward the back as the leading leg comes off the ground and hands touch the ground in a bridge position.     

Back extension roll - To perform this move, you will have to begin from a straight stand, then, rollback, and with your arms direct push into a handstand.  After this, it's time to step down from the handstand into a lunge to complete the skill.     

Back toss - Refers to a swinging skill. It is executed over the bars wherein the gymnast carries out a half-lay backflip at the finish of a front swing and completes in a handstand position.     

Back uprise - It is also a swinging skill executed over the bars. It involves changing from arms to a standing supported position by swinging backward.     

Back-In, Full-Out - Refers to a double salto with a complete twist.     

Back-to-back tumbling - Any tumbling passes wherein an athlete tumbles from one-floor corner to another, then coming back again to the real corner without stopping.     

Backward somersault - A somersault, executed in a backward direction with the legs dominating the rest of the body.

Bail - The best transition skill from high bar to low bar.

Balance - Out of the three routines in acrobatic gymnastics, it is the one, which is highlighted by stagnant hold positions demonstrating power, agility, and flexibility.

Balance Beam - Gymnastics equipment utilized by women in artistic gymnastics. This equipment is a four-inch-wide (100 mm) platform upon which an athlete carry out tumbling and dance skills.

Balking - When the player aims to do a skill and then end the skill prior to full completion. This is usually the reason for the injury, the consequence of fear or unpreparedness.

Ball - Gymnastics equipment, utilized in rhythmic gymnastics. The ball usually rests in the hands of the gymnast, balanced on the body, and thrown into the air and caught.

Barani - Refers to an aerial somersault flip. Generally, an aerial trick that consists of a front flip and a 180-degree turn means half twist.

Base - The group contest and the role in pair, which needs strength and balance in gymnastics. The base is generally an older, larger gymnast.

Beam Pad - Refers to a heavy‐duty suede-covered pad generally wraps around beam strongly, tied with four suitable hook‐and‐loop connector flaps.

Beam shoes - Special shoes, which resemble ballet slippers to guard the feet.

Between bar work - Swing skills carry out between the parallel bars.

Bev Song - Sung with energy and passion at meets.

Bib - On the back of the gymnast, there is a number, which is used for scoring and roster sheets, generally help the judges.

Blind Landing - When an athlete performs a skill and does not look at the ground before landing. Some blind landing skills are back half, front flips, front full twists, and one and a half twists.

Blind change - An uneven bar or high bar expertise executed from a back giant, with an inner pirouette above the top of the bar to finish in a front giant.

Block - Using the apparatus and its rebounding skill, whether through UE WB or LE WB, to get to the height, and shift rotational or horizontal energy into perpendicular energy.

Bonus - Refers to a reward for contending hard skills and connections.

Bounding skills - When numerous tumbling are linked by landing with legs almost straight and quickly bouncing back or punching into the subsequent skill without stopping.

Breaks - Gyms take one‐two breaks per year for the trainers to take vacations, generally around August, when the season is over, prior to the school year schedule begin.

Bridge - The gymnast begins lying with their back on the floor, legs bent, foot flat, hands by their head, palms flat on the floor. 

Briefs - Neutral colored undergarment, or colored undergarment to match the leotard.

Busnari - Refers to reverse Stöckli straddle all the way through the handstand.  This name is derived from Alberto Busnari.

Butterfly - A dynamic force skill that involves changing from a dependent hanging position under the rings to an Iron Cross-position with complete elbow extension bilaterally. 


Cables - For high bar and uneven bars, cables are a stabilization system and attachment system for the rings.    

Callus - Generally, calluses are thickenings of the outmost layer of the skin. For gymnasts, it builds upon the palms of the hands due to the continuous rubbing of the hands against the bars.     

Capitol Cup Format - Refers to a gymnastics meet format where athletes warm up an event and then contend that a similar event quickly following. It needs a venue with 2 gyms such as a warm-up gym and a competition gym.     

Cartwheel - Refers to a sideway rotating motion of the body, generally executed by bringing the hands to the ground one at a time while the body turns upside down. The legs move above the body trunk while hands (one or both) are on the ground, and then the feet return to the ground one at a moment. In the end, the gymnast stands upright.     

Cast - In artistic gymnastics, the cast is a common skill on uneven bars.     

Cat Leap - Taking off from an one‐foot, the athlete brings the other foot to 'attitude,' then immediately switches in‐air to get the take‐off foot to reach the similar position, landing on the reverse foot.     

Center Of Gravity/COG - Refers to the point around which a body will turn presuming no outer forces presently being applied. Generally, the center of gravity of a male is a bit higher than a female.     

Chalk - Generally, magnesium carbonate is applied to the hands for removing perspiration and cut slipping.     

Chestroll - Refers to the skill of bending the back. It is even called a chin stand.     

ChoPat strap - A strap functional around the knee, above the patellar ligament to reduce pain caused by Osgood‐Schlatter disease.     

Choreographer - Someone who takes the person on Floor and Balance beam and creates Optional‐level routines.      

Choreography - Phrase for how gymnasts compose a routine; the dance elements, steps, and moves, which make up the full routine.     

Chusovitina - A female gymnast whose full name is Oksana Chusovitina. She is the doyenne of world gymnastics. Known for breaking her record for most Olympics participated by a single gymnast.     

Circle - When a gymnast takes a complete circle with his legs together and sustains on both hands. Circles are 1 of 3 essential swings on a pommel horse.     

Circling Element - Gymnastics judges phrase for any bar skill, which goes around the bar, similar to a free hip.     

Clear Hip Circle - A skill observe on the high bar of men and uneven bars of women wherein the athlete's hips circle backward around the bar without touching it and the athlete completes a handstand. Also called a free hip circle.     

Closed - Either gymnast position on the floor where his heels are together with legs twisted outside or one toe touches the other heel at an oblique.

Club - Private gymnastics education facility not connected with high schools such as at park districts, own by private coaches, parents, or business-minded people. The club generally offers training to beginners to the highest level of gymnasts they have. For competing in the USA Gymnastics gymnasts must be associated with a Club.

Club Gymnastics - Refers to gymnastics contested in college as an associate of the NAIGC (National Association of Intercollegiate Gymnastics Clubs).

Code Of Points - The book documented all rules of gymnastics such as the values, skills, equipment, descriptions, timing, pictures, and score for qualification to move to the next levels.

Collegiate - Fewer than eighty programs for Women, also fewer for Men. Scholarships are obtainable at some schools.

Comaneci - Release move, which begins from a kip. The gymnast transmits into a front flip in a straddle pose to recatch the bar.

Combined - At the most senior levels of the contest, a third routine have to be executed, which combines both balance and dynamic moves, in addition to the common tumbling and dance.

Competition - The formal term for a meet

Composition - Refers to gymnastics routine structure. Each skill or movements are a building block and how they are set into an exercise is known as the composition of the routine

Composition Errors - This term is used when the athlete gets deductions regarding how the routine is put together, or “composed.” It is generally considered in the scoring process of gymnastics.

Compulsory - All athletes contesting compulsory routines must do particular skills in a particular order. It is an adjective used for describing gymnast's routines, and levels.

Compulsory Gymnastics - Refers to the levels where the athlete carries out particular routines, which he has to learn exactly. One to six is the gymnastics level. USA gymnastics made the routines with the aim that the athletes have a strong gymnastics base before progressing to the optional levels.

Concentric Muscle Contraction - When a muscle curtail while contracting.

Connection Value - Tenths of points or bonus points are granted to gymnasts who include complex combinations of skills into their routines. The skills have to be carried out without pause or hurdle to get the connection value points.

Counter Turn - Generally, used for describing the rotating of the hips against the way of a double leg circle. When an athlete is in the 12:00 position, his hips should be rotated in the reverse direction of their circle.

Cowbell - Refers to one of the stands, which is only permitted at Michigan

Crank Beam - Way to lift or lower beam. The lowering beam can be supportive while learning new skills.

Cross handstand - A handstand variation in which the hands are planted close together on the floor.


Dance Passage or Dance Series - A combination of multiple dance elements is carried out on the Floor Exercise or the Balance Beam.

Dance-Through - It means performing a beam or floor routine with simply the dance elements, with no tumbling skills.

Deduction - The term utilized in gymnastics to take away from an athlete's, score for errors.

Degree Of Difficulty - A rating, which weighs the complexity of the particular moves in a gymnast's routine. It is categorized into the complete score after judges have scored the implementation of the moves. Each skill has a different level of difficulty ratings such as A, B, C, D, E, F, or G.

Derwael-Fenton - A gymnastics workout on the bridge with uneven bars, which was initially executed by the Belgian gymnast Belgische Nina Derwael and the British gymnast Georgia-Mae Fenton. It is registered in the points code as an "F" complexity workout. For performing Derwael-Fenton, you should begin with a handstand on the top bar, then roll the legs below, and then floats toward the back over it.

Diamidov - Swing onward with 360-degree (1/1) turn on one arm to handstand on parallel bars. This name is derived from the name of Sergey Diomidov.

Difficulty Score or The D-Score - In a global context based on the FIG Code of Points, there are 2 components of a gymnast's end score. Judges' two-panel score all routine and the end score is the combination of total scores. One of the components is the D-score which calculates the routine based on the skills carry out and their complexity level. The DV (Difficulty Value), the CR (Composition Requirements) and the CV (Connection Value) are some of the values included in it.

Dips - Exercise, which aims at the chest and triceps muscles. It even includes abs and shoulders. While performing dips, the gymnast's hands remain on parallel bars, legs hanging bend the elbows to ninety degrees, and press back up.

Dislocate - From an onward swing upon reaching straight up, kick outer and up as the shoulders turn to continue the swing. 

Dismount - The action of getting off equipment and the skill used to perform it.

Dive Roll - When a gymnast makes a transition from handstand into a forward roll.

Double Back - Refers to a tumbling skill that has two successive backward somersaults executed in a similar skill move. It can be performed in any body position – open, tuck, pike, or layout.

Double Full - A trampoline movement, which includes a single back somersault that has two twists.

Double Stag - From 2 feet height, the athlete jumps with 1 bent knee ahead and 1 bent knee in the back.

Double Twist - Refers to a solo layout somersault that has two twists.

Double flyaway - Refers to two flips prior to landing.

Double, Double - Refers to the Silivas, which is generally a movement on the floor exercise in artistic gymnastics. The gymnast finishes 2 somersaults and 2 twists mid-air.

Double-full - Single salto that has two twists.

Down to beam work - In all beam routines, there is a requirement i.e. the gymnast has to position her chest, back, or base on the beam.

Dragging feet - Generally, take place from a release move above the low bar to sluggish momentum.

Drop - A skill, which involves changing from an upright supported position over the bars to an overturned, hanging position under the bars.

Dynamic - Among three routines, it is one of the routines in acrobatic gymnastics, which is a combination of choreography with tumbling series and flight elements such as throws.


EGR - Short form for element group requirements.

Eagle Grip/L Grip - In this grip, the athlete's hands are turned one-eighty degrees outer from an overgrip. Thumbs are twisted out but in the reverse direction of an under-grip. This position needs flexible shoulders to swing at ease.

Eagles (L giants) - Giants executed in the backward direction complete shoulder inner rotation and forearm pronation.

Eccentric Muscle Contraction - When a contracting muscle grows longer, it is considered an Eccentric Muscle Contraction.

El Grip - Refers to the wrist's full rotation outward from the neutral grip.

Elbow stand - An inverted pose wherein the body is holding up on forearms only.

Element - Any single movement in a routine, which has value. Even known as a gymnastics skill.

Element group requirements - Under the present Code of Points, the precisely needed skills, or skill families, a gymnast has highlighted at some point in their routine on all events.

Elementary gymnastics - Kind of gymnastics, which conventional gymnasts in training use. It helps gymnasts to know the elements and ways of gymnastics.

Elite - The pro-level of gymnastics that an athlete progresses to either after level ten or from the TOPS program.

Endo - Forward giant including a stoop circle via back to handstand; perhaps carry out straddles or in a piked position.

Event Coaches - Some gyms include coaches, who are proficient in events.

Events - Floor, Uneven Bars, Beam, Vault are the four women's events in gymnastics and floor, Pommel Horse, Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars, High Bar are the six men's events in gymnastics.

Execution - Form, style, and technique, which is usually the performance of a routine used for completing the skill comprise the level of execution of an exercise.

Execution Score or E-Score - The execution score or e-score is useful for evaluating the execution and artistry of the routine. It comes from a 10.0.

Extension - The term is used for referring to the height of the leg when it is lifted into the air while performing a dance skill.

Extension/Flexion - Refers to an extension of a joint generally move toward straightness. Its opposite is flexion.


FIG - Abbreviation for Federation of International Gymnastics. A world governing body that decides global elite rules and regulations, meets, scores, and values of skills. The World Championships and the Olympics follow FIG rules.

FX - Refers to floor exercise.

Federation Internationale de Gymnastique or FIG - The international governing body for gymnastic sports. FIG is responsible to publish the FIG Code of Points, i.e. the rulebook utilized for scoring worldwide competitions, including the Olympics.

Flares - Circles, excluding the hips maximally snatched.

Flex - Bending a joint.

Flexibility - Having a broad range of motion in a joint. For example, doing splits, or placing one chin on one's knees without bending legs.

FlicFlac - Another phrase for a back handspring.

Flight series - A mix of two or more flips; It is required in all optional level beam routine.

Flip - Rotation about the crossways, or the parallel axis, which generally runs left to right.

Floor - Refers to a specially set exercise surface, considered an apparatus and used by both female and male gymnasts both..

Floor Beam - Refers to the beam on the floor.

Floor Exercise - Gymnastics event wherein gymnast perform move on the floor in an area twelve meters (40 feet) square

Floor bar - A static bar, which sits about four to six feet off the floor that can be utilized to begin basic or advanced bar-linked training.

Flyaway flip - Refers to the dismount in which the bar is released and a backflip is executed prior to landing.

Flyaway twist - Refers to the dismount in which the bar is released and a backflip is executed with a complete twist prior to landing; can even be a double twist.

Foam Pit - It offers a secure landing, allowing the athlete to better their abilities

Foam Pit/Loose Foam Six to eight-foot deep pits packed with foam blocks utilized to cushion athlete landings and falls.

Foette - When a gymnast takes off from one foot and swings in the air leg onwards, hops off of the foot on the floor, and finishes a 1/2 turn, landing on a similar leg. The in‐air leg remains at the back, with the athlete landing in a plie/scale pose.

Forward Somersault - A front salto tumbling skill on the ground or balance beam or performed as a beam mount, performed in the tuck, pike, or layout pose.

Forward roll - A move begins from a standing position and then the athlete crouches down, places their hand's shoulder broad at a distance, and hands facing inward.

Free hip - Refers to a back hip circle in which the gymnast's body doesn't touch the bar, most usually the skill should begin and end in a handstand. Also known as a clear hip.

Free leg Turn - A turn wherein the leg in the air is free to be in any position chosen by the gymnast.

Freestyle gymnastics - A phrase accepted by British Gymnastics to depict a new and quickly developing activity which also includes aspects of other famous activities, such as Parkour, Free running, and Urban Gymnastics, connected with martial arts kicking links.

Front Flip - Executed from a run or out of another onward tumbling skill, the athlete bounces back upward and forward into the air in a prolonged position, and arms above his head.  The legs are placed and the body somersaults frontward, just prior to landing the legs open out.

Front Flip with a twist - Gymnast jumps/bounces back up and onward with arms above his head.

Front Giant - Swing wherein the body is completely extended and moves through a 360-degree rotation around the bar; can be executed in a reverse grip with the athlete facing the low bar (front giant).

Front Handspring - A gymnastics skill, which includes two components such as a forward lunge and flip. It propels the athlete into a half-revolution, finishing in a handstand pose.

Front Hip Circle - A gymnastics starting level skill. 360-degree circle moving onward around the bar, beginning and finishing in front support.

Front Limber - A gymnastics skill in which the gymnast executes a handstand, carries the force forward, landing in a bridge, and then tows their upper body upwards, finishing in a standing position.

Front Pass - Direct correlation of at least two or more forward acrobatic skills such as a front handspring and front flip in which one is a flight or aerial skill.

Front Somersault - A somersault performed in the forward direction.

Front Split - A move is performed by extending one leg onward, and the other leg to the back of the torso.

Front Walkover - Refers to a forward skill carried out by lunging onward with the main leg. In this skill gymnast, place both hands on the floor, passes all the way through a handstand with the legs split, changes weight onto the non‐dominant leg, lifts arms from the floor, and returns to an upright position.

Front tuck - Refers to the first front salto the gymnast learn. It is in the level five routine.

Full - Generally called a full-twisting layout or a full twist a gymnastics move. The layout needs an extended body while turning over upside down; while the full-twist needs a 360-degree rotation, as it merges flipping and twisting at the same time, it is an advanced move.

Full Turn - Refers to a 360-degree turn gymnastics or dance skill needed on both ground and beam.

Full Twisting Double Back - A double salto with a complete twist on the primary flip.

Full in - A double salto that has a full twist and is carried out during the first salto.

Full out - A double salto that has a full twist and is carried out during the second salto.

Full-In, Back-Out - Refers to a double back salto that has a complete twist (the complete twist being carried out during the first salto).

Full-in, Full-out - Refers to a double-twisting double somersault that has a complete twist on the primary salto and a complete twist on the second salto.

Full-twisting double back - Refers to a double salto with a complete twist on the primary flip.

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) - Refers to the International Gymnastics Federation, which is the authorized body for global gymnastics.


Gainer - Refers to backward salto,  which takes off from one leg.

Gaylord - Refers to a high bar skill whose name is derived from U. S. gymnast Mitch Gaylord.

Gaylord 2 - It is gienger, generally a backflip with half turn above the bar and grasps again.

Geinger - A release movement wherein the athlete releases the bar, execute one backflip with a half twist prior to catching the bar.

German Giants - Giants executed in the back direction with complete bilateral shoulder extension.

Giant - When a gymnast casts into a handstand position and makes a complete rotation around the bar while keeping his body straight is called giant.

Gienger - Release move, which comprises of a backflip with a half twist to catch the bar again.

Glide - Way to progress into a kip; the athlete holds bar and swings ahead.

Good leg split - A split in which the gymnast's stronger leg remains forward.

Grip brush Gymnasts are precise about how their grips sense on a bar, generally gymnasts will use a brush on their grips to set the surface of their grips and make a stickier sense on the bar. Brushes are useful for cleaning chalk residue from the grip's surface.

Grips - Devices, worn on the hands of artistic gymnasts while performing on various equipment.

Gutzoghy - Double backward salto between rings while holding on to the ring.

Gym Acro - Refers to a dance element like the leap or jump must be directly linked to an acrobatic skill like a back handspring or backflip.

Gym Manager - Someone responsible to schedule gym time for all gymnasts in the gym at one time, and schedule rotations with the intention that the event space is maximally utilized.

Gymnastics - A sport, which needs physical strength, flexibility, and coordination to perform the exercise. This sport is invented from exercises performed by the early Greeks. It includes mounting and dismounting skills and circus eating skills

Gymnastics Meets - Gymnastics meets are conducted in customary format, capital cup format, or a customized version of any of those. Capital cup format defines that the athlete will be warming up an event and then contesting it right after. These kinds of meets are usually conducted in a big facility with two different gyms.

Gymnastics t-shirt - Pants and T-shirts are generally the comfiest outfits for male gymnasts in class. However, t-shirts are not permitted in competition.

Gym‐acro series - Jump or Leap associated with a tumbling skill.  For instance, switch leap, flip flop, etc.


HB - Refers to the Horizontal (High) Bar.

Half-In, Half-Out - A double salto with a 1/2 twist on each salto.

Handguard - Refers to wrist strap or glove worn by the athlete to guard the hands when they perform upon equipment.

Handspring - An acrobatic movement in which a gymnast carries out a full revolution of the body by leaping headfirst from a standing position into an inverted upright position and then pushing off from the ground with the hands in order to leap back to a standing position.

Handspring entry - Refers to forwarding entry onto the horse.

Handspring front - Forward entry on the vault, front flip off, generally performed in the tucked or piked positions, usually with a half twist

Handspring on vault - Fundamentally a handstand on a vaulting horse, which starts with a running leap, a flip into handstand pose on the vault and then driving off the fault to finish the flip and land on the feet.

Handstand - To stand upturned straight up with compressed upright body tension, with hands as bottom support on the ground.

Handstand Push‐ups - Handstand position in which the gymnast is to lower self-head to ground, or almost to ground, and rise to handstand again while keeping body position in a straight line.

Handstand forward roll - Begin standing, kick into a handstand, move weight onward somewhat, insert the head, and roll forward shifting weight from upper back to buttocks to feet to come back to stand.  Arms perhaps bent or in a straight line during the roll.

Hanging position - Refers to the primary position of the athlete before the exercise.

Head In - An athlete's head is "in" when his chin is tucked on his chest, or near to.

Head Out - In this move, the gymnast's head remains up and chin remain tilted back. This automatically results in an arch in the back, which is considered a weak body position.

Healy - A common exercise on the parallel bars and high bar, uneven bars, beam, and floor where an athlete begins in a handstand and then falls ahead lifts one arm, and takes a full-turn

Heel Drive - Coaches use this phrase to update their athletes that they want them to drive their heels more hard up and above on the face side of a handspring vault or front handspring on the ground. Rising heel drive makes more rotation and possible for block and control to be used on vault or tumbling.

Heel pads - Generally, elbow or kneepads are worn on the feet for protecting the heels during release movement on uneven bars.

Heel rises - Recurring plantar flexion in standing pose for calf's strengthening.

High Bar The bar used for release moves and dismounts is called the high bar.

High Beam - Competition beam‐four feet off of the floor, four inches wide.

Hindorff - Release movement, which begins from a handstand, goes into a free hip, the bar is released and the athlete moves back above the high bar in a straddle position prior to catching the bar.

Hip Circle - Fundamental bar circling skills are performed on uneven bars or high bars. In this skill, the body circles around the bar generally touch the bar at the hips and the hands and arms holding up the body.

Hit - Performing a routine or skill without errors or deductions.

Hitchkick - From a single‐foot take‐off, the athlete swings the in‐air leg in front. As an athlete spring off the bottom leg, changes the legs in the air, landing on a different foot, and try to kick the other leg high in front.

Hollow - A position in which abdominals pulled in, buttocks placed under. Arms can be adjacent to the body or over the head.

Honey - It is used like Stick‐um; to get a good grip on firm elements in "hanging" events.

Hoop - Equipment used in rhythmic gymnastics. It is an empty hoop with a core diameter of 80 to 90 cm.

Hop change - Cast to handstand in which gymnast changes the handgrip from a regular grip to a reverse grip.

Horizontal Bar - Equipment used by men in artistic gymnasts. It includes one 2.4m bar upon which athletes perform skills. It is even called a high bar.

Hours - Usually forty-five minutes for tots until seven hours for Elites.


Illegal Skills - Skills, which you are not performed to perform at that gymnastics level.

Illusion - A challenging movement is executed by spinning on one foot with the chest on the floor.

Indian clubs - A kind of workout equipment used for present resistance in the movement to build strength and mobility. It is invented in the Indian subcontinent.

Inlocate - Similar to a dislocate, but in the reverse direction.

Inquiry - A verbal confront of the score of an athlete's routine. It is valid just between the time the athlete's final score is posted and prior to the end of the next athlete's exercise.

International Elite - Assignments are given to symbolize the US region in competitions. Elected by National Team Staff.

Inverted Cross - A stationary strength skill wherein the body is inverted in a handstand with shoulders placed horizontally regardless of the wrings, shoulders seized to ninety degrees.

Inward turn - Refers to ballet turn on the feet in the reverse side of the supporting leg. It simply means if an athlete does a conventional full turn on the left leg rotating it to the left, an inward turn is performed on the same leg and rotates to the right. It is also called reverse turns.

Iron Cross - A static power skill wherein the shoulders are placed horizontally even with the rings, shoulder seized to ninety degrees. Iron cross has different variations.

Isometric Muscle Contraction - When a muscle becomes contracts but does not vary in length.


Jeager - A front flip for re-catching the bar

Judges - Trained professionals who have the responsibility to judge gymnasts on their skills on all equipment.

Jumps - A straight, pushed, piked, straddle, or split jump

Junior - An outstanding athlete who is too young to contest as a senior. His ages usually lie between 13 and 15.

Junior Olympic or JO Program - Refers to the gymnastic team's highest level whose participation remains in state, regional, and national contests. The JO program includes 10 levels.


Kip - Refers to a training skill in trampolining.

Kolman - The term is derived from the name of Alojz Kolman. A full-twisting Kovacs with 2 back saults and one complete twist above the bar.

Kolyvanov - The term is derived from the name Alexander Kolyvanov. From side hold up on end – flair or loop to handstand and travel three/three with five/four (450°) or more rotation.

Kovacs - Refers to a release movement. In this movement, the athlete releases the bar, carries out two backflips, and then tries to catch the bar.


L Cross - The iron cross variation wherein legs are in a piked position.

Layout - Refers to a flip with your body in a straight form.

Layout step‐out - When gymnasts do a backflip in the extended position with split legs.

Leap - A skill, which leaves from one-foot take-off and can land on any leg.

Leap series - Combination of two or more leaps. It is required in every beam routine

Left Leap - When gymnasts take off from the right leg on the floor, executing a 'split' with the left leg dominating, and then again landing on the same leg.

Leg lifts - An exercise in which a gymnast hangs on a bar, his legs and the shoulder angle remain straight and toes up.

Leotard - The tight, flexible, one-piece clothing that gymnasts wear is known as a leotard.

Levels - The term is used for highlighting the status of the athlete according to how their skills are build up. Each level has rules and requirements the gymnast must meet for categorizing in it.

Levers - Started with hanging on the high bar, raise the body until it becomes parallel to the ground. The body forms a 90‐degree angle between the torso and the arms.

Long hang kip - Refers to the kip on the high bar

Low Bar - Sometimes used for mounting the uneven bars.

Low Beam - The high beam's exact size is about two inches more or less off the floor.  The low beam can be at changeable heights while the athlete works his way to perform skills on the high beam

Lunge - When a gymnast keeps one foot in front, and the knee bent, while the other foot behind, it is called a lunge.


Magyar - A move from one side of the horse to the other in the frontward direction with nonstop circles while touching each part of the horse on the route.

Maltese Cross - A motionless strength skill wherein the body is placed horizontally even with the rings in a prone position.

Manna - It's wild exercise gymnasts do. While performing Manna gymnast uses the hands and arms to hold up the body in an extension pose. Then the hips are raised while the legs squeeze against the torso.

Master of Sport - This term refers to a gymnast contesting at the maximum level of the game in the USSR.

Mat - Safety apparatus utilized in gymnastics to break falls.

Meet - Common used phrase for a gymnastics competition.

Meet Director - Someone who represents the Club or the Booster Club, which runs the meet.

Mental Block - A situation where the athlete is not capable to get over her fear of doing a skill.

Middle - The role in group contest, which needs a combination of power, balance, flexibility, and control, in acrobatic gymnastics.

Miller - Back handspring, which has discrepancy on the quarter turn to land inside handstand, and not ends the back handspring.

Mixed - Refers to one hand regular grip, one hand reverse grip.

Mixed Grip - When gymnast grips with each hand differently.

Mobility Meet - A meet, which has the purpose to get the gymnasts to mobilize to the subsequent level by gaining the mobility scores they required.

Mobility Score - The all-around score is required to progress to the next gymnastics level.

Modified Capitol Cup - A gymnastic meet format having two sets of equipment in the competition gym.  It is known to be a capital cup format with no warm-up gym.

Mom & Tots Class (or Parents & Tots Class) - The primary gymnastics class offering for your kid. These classes are for little kids prior to preschool.

Mount - The act to get onto equipment and the skill utilized to do it.

Mount (First pass) - Generally, the initially tumbling pass in the ground routine.

Moy - A swinging ability, which starts in a handstand swings under the bars, releasing and catching in a standing, maintain position over the bars (3/4 giant).

Music - Coaches or gymnasts choose music for the ground routine from seventy to ninety seconds in length, which is influential only. Overall floor score portion is connected to the synchronization of the move with the music and the link of the music to the choreography.


NAWGJ - Short form for "National Association of Women’s Gymnastics Judges". This association is responsible to train new judges, provide certification, and manage judging at all meets.

National Elite - Compete in the United States, prepares for superior level.

Needle - Placing two hands and one leg on the ground, then kick the remaining leg into a full split.

Neutral - Refers to regular grip. For instance, giant.

Neutral deduction - A score deduction due to rule violation, for instance, gymnasts fail to meet required standards of contest attire. Neutral deductions are perhaps applied against a cumulative score of a team or individual gymnasts.


OOB - Short form for out of bounds.

Olympic Cross - The Iron Cross position variation wherein the body is rotated 90 degrees in any direction.

Olympic Order - Refers to the international competition order decided by the FIG for both men and women. For women, it is a vault, uneven bars, balance beam, and floor exercise while for men the floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, vault, parallel bars, and horizontal bar.

Omelianchik - Back dive with one-fourth twist to land in handstand

One arm giant - A giant executed with a one‐arm grasp; perhaps executed in either the forward or the backward direction.

One-handed cartwheel - A usual cartwheel is executed, but one hand is positioned and kept behind the back.

Onodi - A back handspring with a 1/2 turn mid-air, wherein an athlete finishes with a front walkover.

Open - In terms of the hips, it is a position advancing towards an arched position.

Open Arch - In terms of the hips, an open arch is a position where his hips are pushed ahead and the chest is open.

Optional - This refers to the level in which each gymnast performed a different routine. They are judged on the performing skills and the routine performance, not on the specifics of the routine.

Optional Gymnastics - A kind of gymnastics meets wherein all gymnasts carry out their own choice of gymnastics routines. This is contrary to Compulsory Competition, wherein all gymnasts perform similar routines.

Optional RoutinesOptional routines are composed by the athlete and the coach.

Out of Bounds - The situation on ground exercise or Vault when an athlete crosses the line representing the border of the mat, causing a score deduction.

Overgrip - Hanging on the bar with the palm and fingers facing away from the athlete.

Overshoot - Release movement started by swinging in the direction of the low bar from the high bar, release the bar, and carry out a half turn prior to re‐catching the low bar

Oversplit - With one foot placed on one lifted surface and the remaining foot on another lifted surface, the gymnast extends into a split position, thus getting further than 180‐degree flexibility.


PB - The scoring short form for the parallel bars.

PH - Abbreviation for Pommel Horse (and mushroom).

Pak Salto - Release movement carried out as flyaway from the horizontal bar and caught on the low bar

Parallel Bars - Gymnastics equipment is used by men in artistic gymnastics. Generally include two 3.5m bars.

Parallettes - Small gymnastics tools, used in pairs, and used mainly to replicate the parallel bars that can be available in professional gymnasiums. It is similar to pushup bars, or dip bars, but remains longer and very low to the floor.

Passé' - A movement wherein the pointed foot of the working leg generally passes the knee of the helping leg.

Peel - Peeling off of gymnastics equipment refers to a condition where athlete involuntarily lets go of the equipment with their hands resulting their body to fly away from the equipment and often makes a quick impact with the floor.

Pig - Another term used for the pommel horse

Pike - Refers to a straight leg position in which the maximum flexion is at the hips.

Pike Ups - A skill wherein the gymnast lifts unbend legs towards the hands, so flexing at the hips. Can be performed while holding the high bar or lying on the back.

Pipe - Another term used for high bar.

Pirouettes - Refers to dance turn on one foot. It is usually performed without turnout in gymnastics.

Pit - Refers to a hole in the floor packed with chunks of open-celled foam.

Plyometric - It is an exercise in which muscle contracts from a fully extended beginning position.

Point - When plantarflex the foot and ankle it is termed as a point. Desired position when the foot is off the floor on each event.

Pointed/Flexed Toes - When the foot and toes are pulled down with the intention that the line from the knee to the toes tip become straight and there is no angle in the ankle. Its opposite is flexed toes.

Pommel Horse - Gymnastics equipment is used by men in artistic gymnastics. It includes a rectangular body and two pommels.

Pommels - The handle part of the pommel horse includes wood or fiberglass material.

Popa - From a 2‐foot takeoff, the athlete finishes a full turn in the air while also finishing a straddle jump simultaneously.

Posture - Refers to the body movement

Post‐flight - Time from getting in touch with the vault with both hands to the landing on the feet ‐ generally flips or twists or a combination of both.

Practice - Daily sessions of 45 minutes to 7 hours in addition to lunch break. It includes warm-up aerobic, stretching, events, and conditioning.

Pre-Wrap - It is a tape that offers support to the ankles, knees, elbows, wrists along fingers and toes as well.

Presentation - Gymnasts in particular even rotation “present” to the panel of judges to say hello, greet, and indicate readiness to compete.

Press Handstand - The gymnast begins on the ground in a straddle, then pushes his complete bodyweight onto his hands and presses into a handstand.

Press to Handstand - When gymnasts get himself to handstand position from ground, pike, straddle,  standing, or balance on arms without leaping or stepping into.

Pre‐Elite - USAG JO Level 9‐10 gymnasts are considered Pre‐Elite if their training, agility, and conditioning are directed toward the last goal of being an Elite.

Pre‐flight - It refers to the time duration between feet's contact on the springboard to the hand's contact on the vault.

Pre‐team - A preparatory & accelerate gymnastic training opportunity for gymnasts ages three and up with the aim of preparing our younger athletes for many competitive chances.

Produnova - A women's artistic gymnastics vault includes a front handspring on the vaulting horse and two front salto in a tucked position off it.

Pronation - It is the foot action as it roles inner upon foot contact with the floor. The subtalar joint movement into foot eversion, foot dorsiflexion, and lastly foot abduction.

Puck - Slang phrase used to refer to a vague gymnastics somersault body position, which is a cross between a pike and a tuck.

Pullover - A gymnastics skill is generally executed on uneven bars. To do a pullover, a gymnast has to use his strength to pull himself up until his chin is over the bar.

Punch - Bouncing off from the ground or equipment instead of jumping. Punching consist of foreseeing the ground and springing off using both any spring in the ground and strength in your legs

Punch front - Front flip, generally tucked, initiating, and landing on two feet.


Qualifying score/Post - Need a firm score to get to State meet, and need an enhanced score for Regionals, then there is Eastern/Westerns and then there is Nationals for Level 10. There is even USAG Elite Nationals for Elites, senior and junior both.


Re-grasp - The act of catching the bar again after releasing from uneven bars and high bar. 

Reciprocal Inhibition - Refers to a stretching exercise. It takes place when precise muscles are restrained from contracting as Golgi tendon limb and the muscle spindles opening.

Recreation - Programs are designed as preparation for contest levels if the gymnast becomes good enough, or as a way to have gymnasts doing gymnastics but not contesting. These gymnasts perhaps be the same age or even older than the women's competing, but are categorized by skill level.

Release - On high bar and uneven letting go of the bar to carry out another gymnastics movement before catching it again.

Release Move - The element where the athlete lets go of the horizontal bar, flips or twists, and then again catches the similar bar.

Releve' - Rhythmic Gymnastics Academy, established in 2009. Local coaches and judges team manages it.

Rep/Set - Rep refers to repetition, usually one cycle of the movement in exercise. A collection of reps is called set. It is executed without stopping.

Resi Pit - A firm but flexible training surface is used in training to decrease landing damages when learning severe upright tricks.

Rhythmic Gymnastics - A gymnastic discipline wherein competitors manipulate equipment. Gymnasts get a score on their jumps, balances, turns, flexibility, equipment handling, and artistic effect.

Ribbon - Gymnastics equipment is used in rhythmic gymnastics. It is an extended piece of material fixed to a stick.

Ring Leap - A ring leap, perhaps performed during floor or balance beam routines. As the athlete jumps with both feet, their legs are raised into a split position, but the rear leg if bent up.

Rings - Also known as steady rings or still rings. It is artistic gymnastics equipment.

Rips - A painful condition in gymnastics. Generally, a division of the upper layers of skin in the hand's palm or around the wrists from the blood-rich tissue's lower layer.

Roll - A rotation above an axis in the body above a surface.

Roll backward - Begin standing with arms above your head; sit down rapidly in a squat, moving weight backward, arms bent thus the hands are near to the head.

Roll forward - Begin in an extended position, arms above your head, knees bent, and place hands on the ground.

Rope - Gymnastics equipment used in rhythmic gymnastics is generally made up of a material, which is light and supple. The rope is knotted at the last part.

Rope Climb - Gymnast pulling himself upwards on the rope, re‐grabs, and pulling up again, with or without the help of legs.

Rotation - The circular movement around an axis of the body.

Round-Off - A cartwheel ending with the feet together.

Routine - Stunts combination highlighting a complete range of skills on one piece of equipment.

Rudi - Front somersault with 1½ twists

Runway - Refers to a twenty-five-meter pad for sprinting up to the vault springboard.

Russian Circles - It should begin and end in front of support. In one circle there must be a 360º turn.


SR - The scoring short from for the still rings.

SV - Refers to the Start Value (SV) of each routine. Generally determined by adding up the base score to the bonus points gained from doing complex elements and combinations.

Salto - Refers to a somersault.

Salto/Flip - Jump from ground to ground, beam to beam ground to beam, beam to the ground.

Salute - Gymnasts do it at the start and the end of a routine with either both arms in the air or a single arm in the air at a set position. It is done to acknowledge the judge that the gymnast is ready to start the routine. In the end, it indicates that he completed the routine.

Savado - Moving from one side of the horse to the other in the back direction with nonstop circles while touching all parts of the horse during the move.

Scale - Basic gymnastic balance exercises class wherein the gymnast's body lies straight while pivoting on one leg.

Scissor Kick - When a gymnast takes a jump from a single foot to the other exchanging one leg up and then the other with legs straight, replicating the movement of scissors

Scissors - Generally, the essential leg work, beginning with a single leg in front and a single leg in back in the middle of the horse, the athlete will swing to one side and switch legs in the air.  All legwork remains the variation of the scissor.

Scissors leap - A leap wherein the legs exchange their spots while in the air, highlighting a split with both legs in a single jump.

Score protest - Refers to a written complaint filed by the athlete or their coaches or federation regarding reconsideration and probable revision of scores that seems to be wrong or unfair. According to the FIG rules, it must be filed quickly after the original score is reported, and prior to the end of the contest.

Scoring Gymnasts generally have 2 different scores such as the D score (routine difficulty) and the E score (routine execution). All gymnasts started with a 10.0 execution score from which points get removed for every fault. After that difficulty score is made separately by adding up the complex moves in the gymnast's routine and marks are even offered for particular requirements.

Scrunchie/Hair tie - Hairband build-up of leotard material.

Season - In some regions, the season for gymnastics contest remains from Aug to Dec and Jan to June for Junior Olympic Levels 4‐10. 

Second Skin - Also called NuSkim, available in a patch or liquid form and perhaps applied directly over rips on the hand's skin so a gymnast can continue to contend or train

Senior - Refers to an excellent gymnast who is age-eligible according to the F.I.G. rules.

Sequence - Multiple skills are performed together that make a special combination skill.

Set - The lift movement for aerial and somersaulting skills

Set/Lift - Energy transfer from LE hitting equipment i.e. Beam or Floor and UE on Vault table, to transmit energy to get the maximal upright height.

Short Landing - When gymnasts do not perform complete rotation and land in bigger levels of dorsiflexion, hip flexion, and chest‐down position.

Shorts - Spandex shorts are worn by gymnasts during practice.

Shushanova - A jump in which the gymnast carries out a straddle jump and revolves the body forwards, grabbing weight with hands and then hips with the body in an equivalent position with the ground.

Side Sumi - Like an aerial cartwheel, executed generally on beam.  The main leg started the skill, the body is inverted slanting without the hands touching the floor, and the knees bent to ninety degrees.

Side pass - A tumbling pass not executed crossways the diagonal of the ground but parallel to the sideline

Small Wonder - A small robotic girl who traps humans in the belief she is real

Somersault/Salto - Gymnastics trick wherein a gymnast rotates around the somersault axis, shifting the feet above the head.

Specialist - A gymnast who is particularly strong on multiple events. A specialist usually competes only on their explicit events.

Spindle - Refers to a c-Zech in gymnastics.

Split - Position of body wherein both the legs are in line and extended in reverse directions.

Split Leap - Also known as split jump. It is a series of body move wherein an athlete believes a split position after leaping or jumping from the ground, correspondingly, while still in the air.

Splits - When one leg in front and the other behind you, it is called split.

Sports Psychologist - Professional solving athlete issues such as fear, readiness, injury,  peer pressure stress, and commitment.

Spotting - It means standing beside the equipment and catching the athlete in case he falls or stumbles while performing difficult skills.

Spotting Belt - Refers to a belt, which an athlete wears. It is fixed to ropes or cables joined to pulleys linked to the ceiling or a tower.

Spotting block - A folded panel or block pat is utilized so coaches can mark athletes on the balance beam or components, which are high off the ground.

Springboard - Utilized in the vault to get spring for vaulting above the vault table.

Square - A position in which the shoulders and hips line up to point in a similar direction.

Stag - A split jump in which both the legs bent 90 degrees

Stalder - Refers to a backward circle around the bar in the position pike or straddle, often shown on horizontal and uneven bars.

Stalder roll - A backward giant plus a stoop circle through back to handstand; perhaps carry out straddles or in a piked position.

Stand by - Coach stands in reach of the gymnast "just‐in‐case" but merely touches the gymnast if essential. This makes the situation comfortable for the gymnast and boosts his confidence in ultimately performing the skill independently.

Start Value - Refers to the scoring of gymnastics. It is the score, which a gymnast starts with. If the start value is 10.0, it means all the particular requirements and value parts necessary for their level were there in the routine.

Step Out - When an athlete lands on a single foot and then the other rather than landing on both feet at the same time on the tumbling skill, it is called step out.

Stick - When an athlete lands after a routine and their feet are still on the ground. This shows a balance and adds to a higher overall score.

Still Rings - Gymnastics equipment, which includes two small circles hanging by straps from an overhead hold up and grab by the athlete while performing several exercises.

Sting mat - Generally, one‐two feet mat, thick foam, generally used to decrease the strain on the legs or arms when positioned on the ground in tumbling skills. Used to make softer landings.

Straddle - When both legs of gymnast lift out to the sides instead of front or back.  It can be included in jumps, leaps, or elements of other skills.

Straddle Back - Uneven bar release skill of women carried out from a swing backward on the high bar backward above the low bar, preferably to a handstand to the low bar.

Straddle Glide - A swinging move is generally performed into a kip wherein the legs are spread wide apart to all sides generally to make it simpler to hold up the legs as opposed to a pike glide.

Straddle Split - A split wherein the legs are extended to the left and right until a one-eighty degree angle is reached.

Straight Position - A gymnastics body position, generally in tumbling or salto dismounts wherein the gymnast keeps his body straight. The elements carried out in this position are more complex than ones carried out in tuck or pike.

Straight jump - A forward jump in which the athlete keeps straight legs during flight and landing both.

Strug - Tour jete with extra half-turn in the air generally lands on both feet.

Stuck landing - When an athlete lands a tumbling pass, vaults, or dismounts without shifting his feet, it is termed as a stuck landing.

Stutzkehr (Stutz) - Refers to a swinging skill carried out over the bars wherein the gymnast does a half rotation at the end of a front swing ending in a handstand position. 

SuperFans - Those who show undying support for the team

Supination - The movement is made with the forearm that allows the hand's palm to face upward while the back is facing down.

Switch Ring Leap - A switch leap in which the athlete bends the back leg in the second half to get to the back foot towards the head with the back in a vaulted position

Switch Side - Leap beginning similar to a switch leaps, but with one-fourth twist to land sideways

Switch leap - Leap started with one leg before, switching to the opposite mid‐flight.


T-shirt - Used as a shell in-between rotation at every gym meet

TOPS - Refers to a Talent Opportunity Program. It is a talent search and educational program for women gymnasts whose age lies between 7 to 10. Gymnasts will be assessed on similar physical abilities tests plus some fundamental gymnastics skills.

Tap - Usually, a dynamic movement is used for generating momentum.

Tap swing Refers to the fundamental swing on the high bar.

Team Coaches - Refers to higher‐level coaches, usually earlier gymnasts, male or female.

Team final, or TF - Six-gymnast team, which represent a country, for the team contest.

Tiger paws - Specific wristband supports are used by gymnasts with weak or wounded wrists to prevent hyperextension.

Tight An athlete is generally told to stay tight while performing movements. It is generally another way of saying, "engage your core," every time. The tightness even refers to the complete stretching of the legs and toes pointing.

Timer - A drill, which replicates the feel of a skill, or the set for skill without the danger or risk of finishing the skill.

Timers - When the gymnast carries out part of the skill to check his preparation before performing the whole skill in competition.

Tkatchev - Swing ahead and vault back piked to hang. Its name is derived from Aleksandr Tkachyov.

Toe shoes - Rhythmic gymnasts wore toe shoes to perform turns

Top - The role in pair and group contests, which highlights flexibility and agility in artistic gymnastics. The top is generally a younger, smaller gymnast.

Tot - Gymnast, which is in class (either with a parent or not), under one hour sessions, gets the juvenile athlete used to events, terms, surrounding awareness, coaching style, skill, strength, etc.

Tourjette - A leap wherein the front leg lies in the air, and then the athlete alters directions while switching legs in the air. Landing takes place on another foot.

Training pad - Placed above the beam for a soft landing. Generally used when performing a front flip on the beam

Tramp board - Also called a beat board or springboard.  Generally, used in the vault to get spring for vaulting above the vault table.

Trampoline - An elevated flexible webbed bed or canvas sheet holds up by springs in a metal frame and utilized as a springboard for tumbling

Travel - Meets are placed around the US and local to the club. Gyms will usually travel to meets for their higher‐level gymnasts so they will expose to different teams, judges, and get away from the boredom of the local club experience.

Tsukahara - Refers to a vault and vaults family. Any vault, which has a handspring with one/four - one /two turn onto the vault table into a salto backward, is categorized as a Tsukahara vault.

Tuck - Refers to a leap with knees to chest.

Tuck Position - Refers to the position of body wherein the gymnast hips and knees remain bent. In addition, the chest is drawn with hands grabbing the knees. Tuck position is useful in somersaults to rotate rapidly.

Tumble Tots - Young gymnasts having great spunk!

Tumble Track - Extended, thin trampoline used for practicing tumbling skills with less strain on the body.

Tumbling - The acrobatic skills carried out on balance beam and floor exercise for instance back handsprings and saltos.

Tumbling Pass - Any sequence of associated tumbling elements, generally executed on the diagonal

Tumbling run, or tumbling pass - A sequence of acrobatic skills.  It is carried out on the ground from mat's one corner to the other, usually begin with a sprint, hurtles, and finish with the main somersault.

Turn - The body rotation about the vertical axis. It is generally a full rotation of the body, although ninety degree and one-eighty degree turns are possible for some kind of turns.

Turn on one foot - A pirouette (exactly "whirl") is a kind of dance turn on one foot.

Turnout - A leg rotation comes from the hips, resulting in the knee and foot turning outside, away from the middle of the body.

Turnover - Refers to turning the body along the axis through the hips vertical to the line of sight with the head straight onward.

Twist - A layout with axial body rotary motion plus the basic rotation about the waist


USA Gymnastics - Known as United States of America Gymnastics, the state authority body for gymnastics in the United States. It was founded in 1963 as the U.S. Gymnastics Federation. This governing body is responsible to select and train national teams for the Olympic Games and World Championships.

USAG - All gymnasts contending compulsory routines must execute particular skills in a set order.

Undergrip - When a gymnast hangs on a bar with his fingers facing himself.

Uneven Bars - Also called asymmetric bars, refers to artistic gymnastics equipment, made up of a steel frame.

Up on the board - Hit on the board's part where the most springs are placed ‐ by the line.

Uprights - The vertical bars, which grasp the parallel bars and straight bar up in men's gymnastics, and the asymmetric bars up in women's gymnastics.

Uprise - Backswing generally goes into a free hip or a handstand.


VT - Abbreviation for vault.

Value Part - In gymnastics, every skill has allocated value such as beginner-level skills are A and advanced skills are B, C, D, E, etc. based on the skill's difficulty.

Vault - Gymnastics equipment in artistic gymnastics to perform skills upon it.

Vault Table - Artistic gymnastics equipment, by which the gymnast performed his skill.

Verification - Elites go through the verification process at the Karolyi's Ranch occasionally during a year, even though there is not a meet or assignment. Its because the National Team Coaching staff have to ensure that the gymnast is still learning new skills, scoring well, making full or half routines together, or just evaluate his return from injury or contest readiness.

Victors - Refers to Hail.

Virtuosity - Refers to mastery of move, generally, the artistry, or rhythm and harmony degree, showed when a movement is performed to its maximum with regards to style and elegance.

Voronin - Named after Mikhail Voronin, it refers to a back uprise and piked vault with one/two i.e. one-eighty degree turn to hang.


Warm‐up - The time and practice, which aim to warm up the gymnast's muscles so he did not injure himself while stretching or training.

Waterfall - When a gymnast goes into a handstand then tuck his chin and arch back

Whip - Refers to back handspring with no hands

Whip half - The gymnast leaps or rebounds off both feet moving in the air and toward the back, arms stretched above the head with back arching.  A half twirl with the body extended, so the athlete lands on both feet facing the reverse direction as the initial position.

Wolf Jump - From two feet, the athlete jumps and arches the back, try to take the feet into a position near to the head.

Wolf leap - From a single‐foot take‐off, the gymnast jumps with the front leg and bends the back leg to take foot into a position near to the head.

Wrist bands - Wristbands help in preventing abrasion and make gripping more comfortable.

Wrist braces/Lion - Refers to the leather braces, wear by the gymnast on the wrist to exclude extreme wrist extension


Xcel Program - An unusual USA Gymnastics competitive program that offers flexibility to coaches and gymnasts individually. Its aim is to offer gymnasts of different abilities and commitment levels the chance for a rewarding gymnastics experience.


Yamawaki - Refers to a high bar release movement. It was first executed by Japanese gymnast, Kyoji Yamawaki.

Yurchenko - The name is entitled to a particular vault and a vaulted family in artistic gymnastics. From Soviet gymnast Natalia Yurchenko this name is derived. In 1982 she contested in Moscow.

Yurchenko Vault - A type of vault, which starts with a roundoff entrance onto the springboard and after that a back handspring onto the vaulting table and a flip off the table. A twist perhaps added on the route off the table or between the table and springboard.

Yurchenko half on - Round‐off entrance onto the springboard, one/two rotations onto the horse, generally front flip off.

Yurchenko loop - A skill executed on the balance beam in artistic gymnastics of women. Its name is derived from Soviet gymnast Natalia Yurchenko, who invented and contested with the element in the early 1980s.

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