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Abaxial (fracture) -  Fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone take place mainly in racing breeds. It is typically linked with the fast strenuous workout but has been reported in horses on paddock workout and in young foals running on big pastures.     

Acey-deucy - This refers to a riding style wherein the rider uses a longer stirrup on the left or inside leg. Hall of Fame jockey Eddie Arcaro, who rode with his left (inside) stirrup lower than his right, to get a better balance on turns, made this riding style famous.

Across the board - When you wage across the board, you are wagering your horse to win, place, AND show. It is usually called a “combo straight wager” due to three different bets (win, place, AND show) in one. If your horse comes first, you acquire the win, place, and show money. If your horse comes second, you acquire place and show money. If your horse finishes third, you just acquire the show money. This bet is usually expensive and has less profit potential.

Action - This term describes the way a horse move. It generally includes the way a horse lifts its legs, knees, hocks, and feet plus the use of shoulder, humerus, elbow, and stifle. Most often used for describing motion at the trot, but occasionally applied to the canter or gallop.    

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Acupressure - Massaging precise acupuncture points. Acupressure is used in combination with acupuncture to treat problems beginning before and after long-term infection or a surgical procedure.

Acupuncture - A primeval and proven way of treating horses by the use of needles, electrical current or moxibustion (heat and herbs), to excite or realign their body's electrical fields. Acupuncture decreases the risk of ileus, helps to prevent injuries, and much more.    

Added money - Money added to the prize of a race via nomination fees, starting or entry fees, by the racing association or by a breeding or other fund.

Added weight - When a horse has more weight than the required conditions of the race, usually because the riders exceed the set limit.    

Adequan - This refers to the brand name for polysulfated glycosaminoglycan, which is used for treating certain arthritic conditions.

Advance-deposit wagering - A form of gambling on the results of horse races wherein gamblers must fund their account before being allowed to put bets. It is usually conducted online or by phone.    

Age - In the Northern Hemisphere, all Thoroughbreds celebrate their birthdays on January 1. In the Southern Hemisphere, the birthday is August 1.

Agent - A person who is responsible to transact business for a stable holder or jockey, or certified to sell or buy horses for an owner or breeder.    

Airing - This term is used to indicate that the horse was not running at its top speed.

All out - This term is used to indicate that the running horse has extended itself to its extreme.

All-age race - When a race is organized for horses, which are two-year-olds, and up.

Allowance optional claiming - Usually a race type, which combines features linked with two traditional race types, Allowance and Claiming races. Hoses perhaps entered under Allowance conditions (not eligible to be claimed, but must meet the criteria for the race conditions) OR entered for claiming rewards if they do not meet the criteria for the race conditions.

Allowance race - In this race, the runners run for a higher purse than in a maiden race. These races generally include conditions such as "non-winner of three lifetimes." They often organized for a horse that has broken its maiden but is not prepared for stakes company.

Allowances - Weight allowed to be reduced because of the race's conditions, by age or by sex or because an apprentice is on a horse.

Also eligible - When a horse is officially entered in a race, but not allowed to begin unless other horses are scratched.

Angular limb deformity - This refers to valgus (an outward) or varus (inward) divergence of a limb. The point of divergence for most limb defects is linked with a joint. The carpus (knee) is the highly affected joint along with the fetlock (ankle) and tarsus (hock).

Anhydrosis - Known as "dry coat" or "non-sweating disease" and "the puffs" in which the horses lose the capability to sweat. It affects the evaporation process in their body and leads to the overheating problem (hyperthermia).

Anterior - The area towards the front of the body. Example the front of the hoof.

Anterior enteritis - Acute inflammation of the small intestine, showing signs of abdominal distress, such as colic and diarrhea.

Apical (fracture) - Fractures of the primary phalanx are not rare in racehorses. They perhaps are small "chip" fractures along the dorsal edge of the proximal joint surface, longitudinal fractures (split pastern), or comminuted.

Apprentice - Refers to a jockey who is in training. He/she might have been riding for less than a year or who haven't won at least 45 races. These riders obtain weight allowances on all their mounts depending on the number of winners they have.

Apprentice allowance - Weight concession provided to an apprentice rider. Generally 10 pounds until the fifth winner, 7 pounds until the 35th winner and 5 pounds for a calendar year from the thirty-fifth winner. Also, three pounds are sometimes allowed for an additional year when riding for a real contract holder. This rule differs from state to state.

Apron - This refers to the paved region between the grandstand and the racing surface. It is an area beside the racetrack where players perhaps watch racing up close and in person.

Arthritis - This refers to joint inflammation. It causes a rise in the amount of synovial fluid in the joint.

Arthroscope - A tiny lens tube used to look areas inside a joint, attached to a small video camera.

Arthroscopic surgery - An effective technique to remove osteochondral waste and treating other lesions.

Articular cartilage - Cartilage, which covers up the ends of bones where they meet in a joint.

Artificial breeding - The process including artificial insemination or embryo transfer (transplants) in which sperm collected from male horse is manually deposited into the reproductive tract of a female.

Arytenoid cartilages - This refers to the triangular cartilages in the higher part of the entrance to the larynx. Arytenoid cartilage movement controls the diameter of the laryngeal opening.

Ataxia - When horses become unable to walk, stand, or maintain balance, usually due to disease of cerebellar or sensory pathways

Atrophy - When a horse's muscle decreases in size, seemingly dissolving away, it’s called muscle atrophy. When this happens, the primary worry to a horse owner is whether the muscle will redevelop, returning to its normal size and shape, and how to recover it.

Auxiliary Starting Gate - This refers to a second starting gate, which is utilized when the number of horses in a race goes beyond the capacity of the main starting gate.

Average-earnings Index (Aei) - A well-known statistic used in North American Thoroughbred horse breeding to keep the earnings of a breeding animal's progeny into the right prospect. It calculates the earning power of a stallion or mare's progeny by comparing the average earnings of a provided horse's progeny with all other runners of the same age that raced in the same country in a particular time frame.     


B.V.M.S. - Acronym for the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery" ("BVM&S" or "BVMS"), a degree provided for studies in veterinary medicine in the UK and other countries.    

B.V.Sc. -  Acronym for the Bachelor of Veterinary Science, a degree offered for studies in veterinary medicine in the United Kingdom and other countries.     

Baby Race - This refers to a race for two-year-old horses.     

Back At The Knee - A leg, which appears like it, has a backward arc with its center at the knee when looking from the side.     

Backside - This refers to the stable area behind a racetrack.       

Backstretch - This term either refers to the part of an oval racetrack on the extreme side of the grandstand, parallel to the homestretch or, the region near the racetrack where horses are stabled and their daily maintenance work is done.

Bad Doer - This refers to a horse that has a poor appetite due to nervousness or other causes. Poor appetite may cause weight loss and in the end, it affects horse performance, health, and longevity.

Bandage - A piece of material used on legs of horses, generally three- to six- inches wide. In a race, the bandage is used to support or protect the horses against injury.  Generally, rundown bandages are used throughout a race and have a pad below the fetlock to avoid injury because of abrasion when the fetlocks sink toward the ground during weight-bearing.  

Bar Shoe - A horseshoe clogged at the back to help support the frog and heel of the hoof. Horses having quarter cracks or bruised feet often wear it.     

Barren - This refers to a filly or mare that was bred but didn't conceive all through the last breeding season.

Barrier - A starting tool used in the steeplechase, a barrier contains an elastic band stretched across the racetrack, which springs back when free. It is also called a tape.     

Basilar (Fracture) - Fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone take place mainly in racing breeds. It occurs due to fast strenuous exercise, however, reported in horses on paddock exercise and in young foals running on big pastures.     

Bat - This refers to a whip of a jockey, also known as Stick.     

Battery - A banned and brutal electrical device, used by riders to stimulate a horse during a race. It is also called as a machine or a joint.     

Bay - The entire cover of the horse may differ from a yellow-tan to a bright auburn. The mane, tail and lower parts of the legs are always black, except white markings are present.     

Bearing In (Or Out) - When a horse is deviated from a straight course because of weariness, infirmity, punishment by rider or rider's incapability to control mount. In such a situation, a horse moves inwards towards the left or outward toward the right.     

Bell - This term refers to the signal sounded when starter opens the gates or, at some tracks, to represent the end of betting.     

Beyer Number - A handicapping device, popularized by author Andrew Beyer, conveying a numerical value (speed figure) to each race run by a horse depending on their final time and track condition. This device allows different horses running at different racetracks to be evaluated objectively.     

Big Red - Refers to any of two famous chestnut-colored horses: Man o' War or Secretariat.

Bill Daly (On The) - Taking a horse to the front at the beginning of the race, and remain there until the finish. This term derived from "Father Bill" Daly, a renowned old-time horseman, who produced many great jockeys.

Bit - Bar in the mouth of horses by which they are guided and controlled. A horse, which has a comfortable mouth, is less diverted from its work. The two most popular bits worn by racehorses are a D-bit and a ring bit.

Black - When the body, head muzzle, flanks and legs of horses are covered with uniform black hair.

Black Type - This term defines that the horse has won (or being placed in) a Group or Listed encounter. Once the horse wins any of these races, their form (written in any formbook or a sales catalog) will be printed in bold black ink and capitals – hence termed as ‘Black Type’.

Blanket Finish - This refers to a close finish depicting that a blanket would cover all the contestants involved.  Simply, when the horses end so close for the win you could tentatively put a single blanket across them.

Blaze - This refers to a white patch on the face of a horse. This term describes a large, white vertical patch on a horse's face. Instead of using this term the Jockey Club prefer more descriptive phrase such as snip; star and stripe.

Bled - When a horse loses blood from the nostrils or sometimes in the lungs. It is also known as Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), which refers to the occurrence of blood in the airways of the lung in association with exercise.

Bleeder - A horse, which bleeds after or during a workout due to a ruptured vessel. Horses that show blood at the nostrils, or are confirmed by scooping or BAL lung wash to be rigorously hidden bleeders, must be given 2 – 3 months rest for avoiding permanent lung damage and a highly increased risk of future bleeds.

Blind Switch - When a horse is trapped behind or between horses and has no room to race. A horse gets caught in a pocket or such a position behind or between horses that don't provide a free course to pursue.

Blinkers - Also called as blinders, generally pieces of horse tack, which avert the horse seeing to the rear and, in some cases, to the side. It is a device to bind a horse's vision, which helps him from swerving from objects or other horses on either side.

Blister - Counter-irritant has given to the horse for relieving pain or treating an ailment.

Bloodstock Agent - Refers to an equine professional who purchases and sells thoroughbreds on behalf of their customers in exchange for a commission. They will evaluate pedigrees and calculate the value of the Thoroughbred being offered for sale.

Blood-typing - This term describes the type of blood horses have. Blood typing has been used by horse breed registries as a way of identifying parentage verification. Because of the number of gene marker systems tested, it is an efficient means of identification.

Blow-out - This term refers to a short, brisk workout. A short workout of about a mile in distance, typically a few days before a title race, planned to sharpen the pace of a horse (blow him out).

Blue Hen - This refers to a mare who has established herself exceptional in creating high-quality foals, almost regardless of which stallion might be the sire. These sons and daughters would also influence the breed. An example of the top sort of Blue Hen mare would be La Troienne.

Board - A large numeric or alphanumeric display, generally known as tote board, used to show the odds or payoffs for each horse, usually at a race track or at a telethon (to show the whole donation to the charitable organization sponsoring the event).

Bobble - A bad footstep away from the first gate, typically caused by the track breaking away from below a horse's hoof and causing him to bend his head or nearly goes to his knees.

Bolt - This is similar to bearing in or out; a bolt takes place when a horse unexpectedly changes direction for some reason, usually because they’re diverted or scared by another horse or something they have run past. Blinkers can be helpful to stop a horse from bolting too often.

Bomb(Er) - When a horse that wins the race sent off at extremely high odds.

Bone Graft - When bone from one part of the body is utilized to promote the formation of bone in another region.

Bone Spavin - This term used to describe the arthritis of the hock joint. A bone spavin, which has developed to the point that arthritis can be seen outwardly, is known as a Jack spavin.

Book - Refers either the group of mares being bred to a stallion in a certain year. If a stallion catches the attention of the maximum mares permitted by the farm manager, he has a full book or describes a jockey's riding promises with his agent: An agent manages a jockey's book.

Bottom - This refers to stamina in a horse or a sub-surface of the racing strip. It generally defines a horse’s overall stamina or used in racing about the level of ground just below the track surface.

Bottom Line - This term refers to a thoroughbred’s breeding on the female side, almost exclusively functional to the tail-female line listed on the bottom of a customary pedigree diagram.

Bounce - When a horse runs poorly after a career-best or near-best performance. Simply it is a reaction to an earlier effort. When a horse typically runs 20's or mid-teens and unexpectedly runs a ten, it is expected to bounce.

Bowed Tendon - A type of tendinitis, the most common injury to the tendon. It is named as "bowed tendon" because of the bow shape appearance due to swelling. The most familiar site of injury is in the superficial flexor tendon between the knee and the ankle.

Box - A wagering phrase denoting a combination bet whereby all probable numeric combinations are covered for specific horses.  This term informs the mutual clerk that you want all probable combinations of the horses chosen in wagers such as exactas, trifectas, and superfectas.

Boxed (In) - A horse, which is racing on the rails (or fence), is trapped between, behind, or inside of other horses. A horse, which is boxed in, is caught up and unable to get clear passage.

Brace (Or Bracer) - Rubdown liniment or an alcohol solution used on a horse by trainers after a race or a workout. It is done to relax the horse's muscle and to put the horse on its toes.

Break (A Horse) - This term describes in two ways: 1. To train an immature horse to carry a bridle, saddle, and respond to commands of rider. It is always performed when the horse is a yearling. 2) To leave from the beginning gate.

Break Maiden - When a rider or horse wins a race for the first time in its career.  It is also called as “earning a diploma”.

Break Or Broke - The term describes leaving the first gate in the early strides of a race.

Breakage - This refers to the downward rounding of the odds on the tote board. It takes place at each track in the United States. In certain conditions, it can have a major impact on the efficient takeout rate you get at the track and thus can spoil your overall profits.

Breakdown - This refers to horse racing's biggest tragedy. This term describes a catastrophic injury sustained while racing. It most usually involves a broken leg.

Breather - Limiting or easing off on a horse for a little distance in a race to allow him to preserve or renew his strength.

Bred - A horse is considered to be bred at the location of his birth. Also, known as the mating of horses.

Breeder - The person who has or leased the mare at the period of foaling. That individual perhaps not has had anything to do with the mating of the mare. It is crucial to review each breed registry's rules to conclude which applies to any particular foal.

Breeders' Cup - An annual series of Grade I Thoroughbred horse races, organized by Breeders' Cup Limited, a company introduced in 1982. The 2019 Breeders' Cup will be beginning at Santa Anita on Nov 1 and 2.

Breeding Fund - A fund establishes by many states to offer bonus prizes for state-breeds. For e.g. in 2017, the PHBA Breeding Fund spread $30 million in awards, proprietor bonuses and limited race prizes.

Breeze - This term often used to describe a workout wherein a horse is easily running under a hold without support from the rider. The fastest workout a horse will achieve before race day is a “breeze” when a horse will cover approximately 1 furlong in 12 seconds.

Bridge Jumper - A person who bets a huge sum of money, typically on low-priced horses to highlight, hoping to get a small, but set profit. The term derived from the structure these bettors may look for if they lose.

Bridle - A piece of equipment, generally a headgear used to direct a horse. It consists of a headstall and bit and reins to provide the rider or driver control.

Broke Down - This refers to a condition when a horse experiences a possible career-ending injury, generally to the leg that usually termed as the horse broke down.

Broken Wind - Also known as recurrent airway obstruction, which is a respiratory disease or chronic state of horses that includes allergic bronchitis characterized by wheezing, coughing and labored breathing.

Broodmare - This refers to a filly or mare that has been bred and is used to grow foals.

Brush - During a race, two horses slightly touching each other or an injury that takes place when one hoof hits the inside of the opposite limb.

Bucked Shins - A fatigue injury typically presents in juvenile horses (about two years old), which workout at high speed. It is simply just an inflammation of the tissue on the front of the cannon bone. The breeds usually affected by this syndrome are Quarter horses, Standardbreds, and Thoroughbreds.

Bug - A young jockey, also known as "Apprentice" who is still in training. He/she must ride a certain number of winners in a particular period before finishing his or her apprenticeship.

Bug Boy - An apprentice jockey is called a "bug boy" as the asterisk that follows the name in the course appears similar to a bug.

Bulbs (Of The Heel) - This refers to elastic, tacky, and greasy external parts of the Horse hoof. They are placed on the back of the hoof where the wall, heels, and coronary band collaborate.

Bullet (Work) - Most excellent workout time for a precise distance on a specific day at a track. From the printer's bullet  which leads the workout time in listings. Also called black-letter work in some regions of the U.S.

Bullring - This refers to a small racetrack that is generally less than one mile. Bullring riding denotes close quarters and possible trouble.

Burn(Ed) - This word is commonly used in the phrase Burned Heels that means the heels of the horse get contact with the racing surface, causing them to bleed.

Bursa - A sac that contains synovial fluid (a natural lubricant). The aim is to pad or cushion, therefore facilitate movement between soft tissue and bone. Occurs most often, where tendons pass over bones.

Bursitis - This term describes an inflammatory reaction within a bursa. This can vary from mild inflammation to septic bursitis. It is very common and essential in the horse. A bursa is found on a limb or at particular body parts that generally have partial movement but with pressure against a part of bone, tendon or ligament.

Butazolidin Or Bute - Generally called phenylbutazone, which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Legal in several racing jurisdictions. Known more typically by the trade names, Butazolidin and Butazone.

Buy-back - A horse placed in a public auction did not reach a minimum (reserve) price fixed by the consignor, therefore got retained. The consignor should pay a charge to the auction company depending on a percentage of the reserve, to cover the marketing, advertising and other costs of the auction company.


Calk - Refers to a projection on the heels of a horseshoe, like a cleat, on the rear shoes of a horse to avoid slipping, particularly on a wet track. Also called a sticker.    

Call - Running location of horses in a race at diverse points. The points of call take place during several stages of a race for example from the starting gate. Understanding the call will help you become a better reader of the past performances of your horse.     

Cannon Bone - Known as the largest bone between the knee and ankle joints - the third metacarpal (front leg) or metatarsal (rear leg) also termed as the shin bone.     

Capillary Refill Time - The time required for blood to return to capillaries after it has been forced out. In horses, the capillary refill time is two seconds, normally. This is measured by pressing the thumb against the gums of horses.     

Capped Elbow - A horse with a big, movable swelling at the point of the elbow, it is possibly a capped elbow. It's even known as a shoe boil, although it does take place in barefoot horses. These swellings are packed with fluid and take place because of trauma from the heel of the foot hitting the back of the elbow when the horse lies down.     

Capped Hock - Also called bursitis of the hock, is a quite general ailment, which affects all breeds and disciplines of horses equally. This is obtained bursitis of the hock caused by trauma that can consequence from a trailer accident, bumping against a stall wall with the hocks, or any other example where the hock is bumped and motivated. The condition is usually noticed as a solid swelling at the end of the hock, and if lameness does happen, it’s typically mild, but the mark may be permanent.     

Carpus - A joint in the front leg of a horse, more normally referred to as the knee.     

Cast - A horse placed on its side or back, and wedged beside a wall, such that it cannot get up.     

Caudal - Directed toward or placed in or close to the tail, or later part of the body     

Center Of Distribution - A formula took from the Dosage profile and a similar effort to calculate speed and stamina     

Chalk - This term describes that side of the bet is the favorite – normally extremely heavy, or strong, favorite – to win that side of the bet. This can be a team, a player/individual, a numerical outcome, or a horse.     

Chalk Player - Refer to an individual who usually bets on the favorite. A chalk player trusts the bookmaker lines and normally bets on the favorite to win the game and cover the spread.     

Champion - Any Eclipse Award-winning horse is called a Champion. In the USA: year-end awards of the Thoroughbred racing are honored in 11 separate categories that include a leading owner, trainer, rider, apprentice jockey, and breeder.     

Chart - A statistical "depiction" of a race (from which earlier performances are compiled). The chart displays the position and margin of each horse at selected points of call, depending on the distance of the race. The chart even display the weight carried, ages, trainers, jockeys, and the race's purse, conditions, payoff prices, odds, time and other necessary information of horse.     

Check(Ed) - When a rider slows a horse because of other horses impeding its progress.     

Chef-de-race - The list of better sires used in the Dosage formula.     

Chestnut - This term is described in two ways: 1. A color of the horse, which may differ from redhead-red to red-yellow to golden-yellow. The mane, tail, and legs are normally deviation of coat color, with markings exceptions. 2) Horny, irregular development found on the inside of a horse's legs. On the forelegs, they are simply on top of the knees. On the hind legs, they are simply underneath the hocks. No two horses seem to have similar chestnuts and so they perhaps used for identification. Also known as night eyes.

Chiropractic - An approach to maintain and recover both the performance and well-being of horses.  Bone alignments are used to treat precise or general health problems.

Choking Down - Generally known as dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). Normally the soft palate is a semicircular tissue bridge, which lies before and over the epiglottis, a triangular wedge, which keeps food and water from inflowing the lungs. In some vigorously exercising horses, there is an inclination for the soft palate to roll up over the epiglottis, which pushes the palate into the stream of exhaled air, abruptly making it hard for the horse to empty his lungs. A loud choking or gurgling sound and a quick decline in exercise amount are signs that the palate has turned out to be displaced.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - A hyper allergenic reaction of the respiratory system, which involves injury to the lung tissue, like human asthma. Affected horses might have a cough with nasal discharge or have a reduced tolerance for a workout. COPD raises the rate of respiratory and reduces lung elasticity.

Chronic Osselet - When synovial fluid is build-up permanently in a joint. It is described by inflammation and thickening of the joint capsule over the injured area. CO is typically accompanied by an alteration in the bone and cartilage.

Chute - This refers to an extended course escalating the length of a straight part of a racecourse, especially an oval-shaped one, permitting races of a particular distance to start at a place other than on one of the turns.

Circle The Field - When a horse is strained to go very broad around other horses to move into a winning position.

Claiming - A process by which an authorized individual may buy a horse entered in a particular race for a set price. When horses have been claimed, their new possessor presumes title after the initial gate opens, although the earlier owner is entitled to all purse money earned in that race.

Claiming Box - The box wherein claims are deposited before the race.

Claiming Race - A race wherein each horse entered is qualified to be purchased at a set price. Claims should be done before the race and only by licensed owners or their agents, having a horse registered to race at that meeting or who get a claim certificate from the stewards.

Classic - Either refers to a race of conventional importance or used to depict a distance A race at the American classic distance that is now 1 1/4 miles. (The European classic distance is 1 1/2 miles.)

Clerk Of Scales - An official whose main responsibility is to weigh the riders before and after a race to make sure proper weight is/was carried.

Climbing - When horses raise their front legs abnormally, high as it flies, this causes them to run inefficiently. Most often take place with young or inexperienced racehorses. Throughout a race the horse holds its head and legs very high, compromising its pace. Normally happen due to dirt kicked in its face by other runners.

Clocker - An individual who is responsible to record the time and workout rate of a horse.

Closed Knees - A condition wherein the cartilaginous expansion plate above the knee (distal radial physis) has turned to bone. Closed knees point out the completion of the long bone expansion and show a sign of maturity.

Closer - A horse, which tends to run best in the last stage of the race, coming from off the pace.

Clubhouse Turn - The initial turn of races, that starts on the front stretch/homestretch.

Coffin Bone - Also called as the pedal bone, the horse's bottommost bone in the front and rear legs. This bone is covered by the hoof capsule.

Colic - Pain in the abdomen of the horse. It includes a simple blockage, a seizure in the colon/gas increase, or torsions in the digestive tract, the common colic episodes are idiopathic, or “of an unknown source.”

Colors - Jacket and cap-worn by riders to indicate the owner(s) of the horse.

Colt - This refers to male horses who are under five years of age (thoroughbreds) or four years of age (standardbreds).

Commingle - Combining mutuel pools from various countries or operators into one pool (the host).

Comminuted (Fracture) - When the horse's bone has broken into various pieces, it is called a comminuted fracture.

Company - This refers to a class of horses in a race. Generally the members of the field.

Comparable Index (Ci) - Assessment of the average earnings of offspring produced from the yearly book of mares bred to a sire, when the similar mares were bred to other sires. Simply, it denotes the producing quality of the mares bred to a stallion.

Compound (Fracture) - When the skin is broken and damage due to the blood supply to the limb.

Condition Book(S) - Book issued by a racing secretary that defines the conditions to participate in the horse racing.

Conditioner - This term refers to either a trainer or a race or exercise to allow a horse to achieve fitness.

Conditions - This refers to the requirements of a particular race that perhaps include age, sex, money or races won, weight carried and the distance of the race.

Condylar (Fracture) - A recurring strain injury that causes a fracture to the cannon bone over the fetlock because of large loads transmitted during a high-speed workout.

Conformation - The degree of correctness of a bone structure, musculature, and horse's body proportions about each other.

Congenital - Disorders of the horse that include entire physical deformities, which are there from the birth of the foal, and those that are diagnosed later on in life.

Connections - Refers to the person who is connected to the horse in term of buying food to paying for their care. They have the responsibility to manage every facet of the horse's life. 

Consolation Double - This refers to a bet on two outcomes, where you have to predict both positions exactly for the win. A payoff to owners of daily double tickets, combining the successful horse in the initial race of the double with an injured horse in the second.

Cooling Out - When we bring horses to normal body temperature, most often by walking, after they become overheated during exercise or racing. After exercise or race, horses should be cooled out.

Corn - When a horse feels irritation on the sole, toward the heel. Just like a human, corn occurs due to the pressure from the shoe.

Coronary Band - Injury on the horse body part usually where the hairline meets the hoof capsule. This formation is liable for permanent hoof growth over their lifetime. In any way, if the coronary band is injured, the future expansion of a horse’s hoof wall is endangered.

Coronet - Known to be a British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse. In 2016, when she was a two-year-old, she won both of her races including the Listed Zetland Stakes.

Corticosteroids - This refers to a synthetic version of natural hormones formed by the adrenal glands and gonads. Corticosteroids mostly used to decrease the pain and swelling of musculoskeletal troubles caused by inflammation.

Cough - Irregularly expelling air from the lungs. The most familiar reason for cough in horses is equine asthma, which is similar to human asthma— generally caused by inflammation in the lungs.

Coupled (Entry) - When two or more horses participating in a race is of the same person. It generally applies in France for a selection point of view.

Cover - This term refers that a horse follows the others in the race and utilizes them as a form of protection before its rider asks it to speed up in the end stages of a race.

Cow Hocks - Abnormal conformation wherein the points of the hocks turn in. A horse with "cow hocks" has hind limb conformation wherein there is a medial variation of the hock. Overall, when looked from behind, the lower limb angles outer from the hocks, placing the feet broad apart and making the horse look "splayfooted".

Cracked Hoof - This refers to the vertical crack of the hoof wall. Usually, the epidermis cells located nearer to the hoof surfaces get overfull with proteins that cause the cells to die. This can build drying and hardening of the hoof wall. However, you can retain the thick outer portion of a horse’s hooves by cutting and filing them without any pain, only if the living tissue, which is placed underneath is not disturbed.

Cranial - Nerves toward the head of a horse. These are a special sets of nerves, which originate from the brain itself within the cranium of the skull.

Creep Feeder - Equipment designed to feed the foal. Mares cannot gain access to this equipment so that foals will not be hurt. Foals usually fulfill their nutritional needs in their first two to three months with mare’s milk along with the feed they begin nibbling on. If a foal and mare are in fine state, the foal does not need to begin creep feeding until 2 months. However, the condition changes after two months. In the 3rd month of lactation, the mare’s milk making drops while the foal’s nutritional requirements keep rising. Therefore, foals face a nutrient gap. Creep feeding can offer the foal with additional nutrients to fill this gap.

Cribber - Also known as wind sucker, refers to a horse, which clings to stuff with its teeth and sucks air into its stomach.

Crop - A short kind of whip without a lash, used in horse riding. It is also known as a riding crop or hunting crop, a part of the horsewhips tool family.

Croup - This term refers to the topline of the hindquarters and nearby musculature of horses, starting at the hip, expanding proximate to the sacral vertebrae and ending at the dock of the tail (where the coccygeal vertebrae start).

Cryptorchid - This term is used to describe a stallion, which has at least one undescended testis. The condition is not distinctive to equids, but the horse is of particular importance as the retained testis fails to grow viable sperm, so rates of fertility get affected.

Cup - This term either refers to the uneven occlusal surface of the tooth (the surfaces, which meet when a horse locks its mouth). Used as an imaging method to determine age in a horse or refers to trophy given to winning horse owners, generally in a stakes race.

Cuppy (Track) - A loose and dry racing surface, which breaks away below a horse's hooves.

Curb - An injury to the soft tissue at the back of the hock. This injury occurs due to work or exercise activities, which can be, worsen by a conformational deviation of the hock.

Cushion - Racetrack's top portion is usually referred to as cushion.

Cut Down - A horse that suffers from injuries, after being hit by the shoes of another horse or because of a faulty stride, a horse can cut herself down.


D.V.M. - Acronym for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. They diagnose diseases, treat horses, and manage the duties of a veterinarian.

Daily Double - A bet offered by horse racing tracks. Bettors place bet on the winners of two races, pre-selected by the racetrack for that race day.

Daily Racing Form - A daily newspaper that contains horse racing information, news, past performance data and handicapping details.

Daily Triple - A bet wherein the bettor must choose the winner of three consecutive races.

Dam - This refers to the female parent of a foal, e.g., the Mother of a Foal.

Dam's Sire (Broodmare Sire) - This refers to the sire of a broodmare. The term used to indicate the maternal grandsire of a foal.

Dark Bay Or Brown - Color of horses, which ranges from brown with spots of tan on the shoulders, head, and flanks, to a dark brown, with tan spots appeared only in the flanks and/or muzzle. The mane, tail, and the legs lower are always black except white markings are available.

Dead Heat - This refers to a tie between two or, rarely, more runners in a race.

Dead Track - The racing surface that lacks resiliency.

Declared -  A formal announcement from a trainer that notifies the racing official they plan to run a horse in a certain race. Horses are usually declared at either the 24-hour or 48-hour stage before a race.

Deep Flexor Tendon - An injury which begins with the deep flexor muscle, also placed behind the elbow. It runs between the superficial flexor tendon and the cannon bone and at last fixes to the coffin bone (P3). Along the route, the inferior check ligament links the deep flexor tendon with the cannon bone just under the knee.

Deep Stretch - This refers to a position very near to the finish line in a race.

Degenerative Joint Disease (Djd) - The most frequent type of arthritis in horses. The common hotspots of this disease are Hocks, fetlocks, and knees.

Derby - A type of horse race whose name is derived from the Derby Stakes run at Epsom Downs Racecourse in England. Conventionally, this term is used strictly for referring races restricted to three-year-olds horses.

Desmitis - Refers to inflammation of a ligament. Often caused due to the tear of any number of ligament fibrils.

Deworming - When a drug (anthelmintics) is used to kill internal parasites, often executed by oral paste or by passing a nasogastric tube into the stomach of a horse.

Dh - Short for a dead heat, which refers to a tie between two or, seldom, more runners in a race. Usually, an imaging finish can decide the winner, but at times it is too close to call.

Did Not Finish (Dnf) - A participant who does not finish a particular race, due to either injury or other problems.

Digestible Energy - This term describes the amount of energy in the diet taken by the horse. Requirements for digestible energy are generally calculated based on a horse's maintenance along with the additional energy exhausted during exercise.

Digestive System - The system by which ingested food is acted upon by physical and chemical ways to offer the body with absorbable nutrients and to emit waste products. Horses are non-ruminant herbivore that means they do not have multi-compartmented stomachs. They have a simple stomach and live on a diet of plant material.

Digital - The part of the limb under the ankle (fetlock) joint, which includes the long and short pastern bones and the coffin bone.

Digital Cushion - Under the back part of the sole, there is the digital cushion, which divides the frog and the bulb from original tendons, joints, and bones, offering cushioning protection.

Diploma (Earning A) - When a horse breaks a maiden i.e. winning for the first time.

Disqualification - Change of final order by officials for a violation of the rules.

Distaff - Races, which are restricted to female horses, are referred to as distaff races. The Breeders' Cup Distaff has broadly recognized race takes place every year to crown the best filly or mare in horseracing.

Distal - Refers to the more (or most) far-away of two (or more) parts of the body.

Distal Sesamoidean LigamentsFixed to the base of the sesamoid bones, passing down and joining to the long and short pastern bones.

Distanced - When a horse remains far behind the rest of the horses that makes him out of contact and unable to regain a place of contention.

Dmso - Dimethyl sulfoxide is a medicine to treat inflammation in horses. It was initially created as an industrial solvent; the Food and Drug Administration nowadays approve it for veterinary use.

Dogs - Cones or wooden fences used for preventing horses from working or galloping near to the inner rail, typically used following heavy rains.

Dope - This term either used for describing past performances i.e. past performances readers are said to dope out a race or known as any illegal drug.

Dorsal - Refers to the body part/"side" opposite that of ventral (and usually called the "back").

Dorsal Displacement Of The Soft Palate - A disorder of the higher airway in horses. It is one of the most common higher airway difficulties, which results in poor performance and unusual noise while exercising. Horses with this disorder typically make a "choking" noise as they hold up from the resulting limited airway obstruction, hence the term "choking down" is used to describe them.

Dosage - A technique to classify Thoroughbred pedigrees by type depending on aptitudinal characteristics inherited from chosen sires, invented in the early part of this century from the study of the Frenchman Lt. Col. J. J. Vuillier. In his classic study, he found out that very few stallions emerged with any great frequency. The Dosage method puts these sires into one of five categories such as brilliant, intermediate, classic, solid, and professional, which measure speed and stamina.

Dosage Index (Di) - A mathematical figure used to calculate the ability of a horse to handle various distances based on the appearance of prominent sires in the bloodline.

Dosage Profile - A series of five numbers, which reveal the relative proportions of each of five aptitudes added by chefs-de-race in a pedigree and articulated in the order Brilliant-Intermediate-Classic-Solid-Professional. These aptitudes comprise the full spectrum of real speed on the left to real stamina on the right and its particular model denotes the aptitudinal type of the pedigree.

Dq - Refers to the abbreviation for disqualified. The rule entitled for disqualification if “a primary horse or any other horse in a race turn sharply or is ridden to both side so as to hinder with, scare, or impede any other horse or rider.”

Drench - This term either refers to a dose of physic for a horse or the appliance by which the dose is managed.

Driving - When a horse is on the field and gets strong urging from its jockey to win a race.

Drop(Ed) Down - When a horse meets with a lower class of rivals than he/she had run against in the past races.

Dropped - The young progeny of a horse, particularly one under a year old, also known as foaled.

Dwelt - Remained in the starting gate long after the rider, starter, and prudence recommended leaving.


Earmuffs - A piece of equipment, which covers ears to prevent horses from hearing distracting, sounds.

Eased - A horse, which can be smoothly pulled up during a race.

Easily - This term is used by chart callers, which refers that a horse wins a race without any extra effort. Horses, which win easily usually benefit from a front-running trip and are evident on the front from gate to wire.

Eclipse Award - An American thoroughbred horseracing award whose name is derived from the 18th-century British racehorse and sire, Eclipse. This trophy is awarded to the winner in each division, which is made by a few small chosen American foundries with knowledge in studio bronze casting.

Eee (Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis) - One of the viral diseases, which causes neurological problems in horses. This disease is usually spread by mosquitoes and become quite serious with the passage of time.

Eighth Pole - A pole that signifies that the end line is one-eighth of a mile away. Eighth poles are generally coated with green and white striped.

Eiph - Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage is a widely recognized disorder affecting racehorses. It occurs due to an exhausting workout that causes the breakage of small blood vessels in the lungs.

Elbow - The top joint in the foreleg, created by the humerus, ulna, and radius. It provides flexion and extension for the forelegs.

Eligible - When a horse meets the criteria to start in a race, according to conditions.

Endoscope - An instrument used to look inside the body. It can be placed into any body cavity, either via a natural opening or through a cut made by a surgeon. Rigid endoscopes and flexible endoscopes are two types of endoscopes used for horses.

Engagement - This term describes the act where the hind legs of horses are brought farther below the body.

Entire - This refers to a male horse, which has not been gelded.

Entrapped Epiglottis - A medical problem occurs in a horse, in which the aryepiglottic folds develop abnormally and get positioned over the dorsal epiglottis surface and covers the epiglottis. When a horse breathes, the trapped air turbulence causes abnormal breathing sounds. This condition makes it difficult for a horse to breathe, and make them reluctant to workout.

Entry - At some instance, you will meet horses in a race that have been opted as one betting choice. This usually takes place when one owner has two horses in a race, which are considered as single betting interest. You are allowed to bet on one of them but will be paid if either of them wins in a race.  

Entry Fee - Charges paid by an owner for entering their horse in a stakes race. The entry fees for most races are approximately 0.5% of the whole prize fund.

Epiglottis - This refers to a movable cartilage fold, which lies at the base of the tongue. Also known as an inflammation of the epiglottic mucosa, and sometimes, the tip of the epiglottic cartilage.

Epiphysitis - A bone syndrome mainly found in young or growing horses whose growth plates inside their longer bones are enlarged. Cannon, radius, or tibia are some commonly affected bones. Horses, which are on higher-calorie diets or overweight are at a high risk of developing this disease.

Epistaxis - An equine nosebleed— one of the common conditions that can vary from a few drops of blood in one nostril to high volumes of blood draining from both nostrils.

Equibase (Company) - A collaboration between The Jockey Club and the Thoroughbred Racing Associations to set up and maintain an industry-owned, central database of horse racing records. Equibase past-performance information is used for tracking programs across North America.

Equipment - The necessary items for horse racing. Loads of equipment are required in horse racing that includes saddles, bridles, blinkers, shadow rolls, tongue ties, hood, noseband, overcheck, over girth, reins, etc.

Equivalent Odds - This refers to the decimal odds the horse went off at in the race.

Estrous Cycle -  The origin of mare reproduction is the estrous cycle that defines the time taken for the growth of an egg within an ovarian follicle to the level that it can be fertilized by a sperm, and for the preparation of the mare’s reproductive area so that fertilization can take place.

Estrus (Heat) - The duration of the reproductive cycle when the mare ovulates and, if bred, is possibly conceiving. It is also the duration when the mare is receptive and will allow the stallion. The average length of the estrous cycle is 21 days, however, it can fluctuate from 19 to 26 days.

Eva (Equine Viral Arteritis) - A contagious viral disease of members of the horse family, which is mainly spread by straight contact with horses intensely infected with equine arteritis virus. This disease can also be spread via breeding a carrier stallion to a vulnerable mare.

Evenly - When horse maintains their starting position throughout a race. They didn't excel at any particular stage and remain consistent in their effort.

Exacta (Or Perfecta) - This refers to betting on the horses that will finish first and second in the exact order. Bettors win if the horses they pick ended in first and second place in the EXACT order.

Exacta Box - When we talk about betting on horse racing, boxing an exacta can be the simple approach to add some strategy to our bets. The exacta required us to choose the initial two finishers in order. Boxing lets our choices come in any order and still win. The exacta generally provides higher payoffs than win, place, or show wagers, but less than the trifecta, superfecta, high-5, or multi-race bets that involves three or more races.

Exercise Rider - An expert whose responsibility is to takes horses on their morning exercise and teaches them the skills they required to contest in races.

Exercise-induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage - Also called "bleeding" or a "bleeding attack" that describes the presence of blood in the airways of the lung, generally takes place during intense exercise.

Exotic (Wager) - Any wager excluding win, place, or show. For the scientifically inclined, the range of combinations in any exotic wager can be calculated by the formula n!/(n-a!), in which n denotes the number of horses in your wager and a denotes the number of finishers in the wager. Pick 3, Pick 4, Superfecta, Trifecta, Exacta, and Daily Double are examples of exotic wagers.

Experimental Free Handicap - A year-end projection of the best North American two-year-olds of the season put collectively by a board, under the sponsorship of The Jockey Club, based on their performances in unlimited races. Two lists are usually formed, one for males and one for females.

Extended - When a horse is running at top speed.

Extensor Tendon - The horse usually suffers injury to both the tendons in the front of the leg (the extensors) or those on the backside (the flexors). One of the characteristics of the extensor tendon is to steady the foot and prevent it from knuckling below as the horse moves. Usually, after an extensor tendon injury, horses will quickly have a problem extending the toe and occasionally knuckle as they walk.


False Favorite - A horse, which has been incorrectly identified as the most superior in a race.

Far Turn - On any racetrack, the last turn before the horses enter the “homestretch” approaching the end line is known as far turn.

Farrier - A professional in equine hoof care that includes the trimming and balancing of horses' hooves and the insertion of shoes on their hooves, if required.

Fast (Track) - Generally refers to dry, even, resilient surface. In the United States, various systems are utilized for turf racetracks and dirt tracks. All-weather tracks (called artificial surfaces) use the dirt track rating system, whose one of the conditions is the surface should be dry, even, and resilient.

Fast Pace - Some races include several “E” horses, all have Q8 ratings. These are generally “suicidal” fast pace races in which it is accepted that early running horses, forced to run a faster pace to the second Call than they choose will lose more than a comparative amount of speed in the end part.

Fault - This refers to weak points of the conformation of a horse or character as a racehorse.

Feather - Lightweight i.e. normally refers to the weight a horse given to carry in a race.

Fee - This term either refers to an amount paid to a rider for riding in a race or the cost of appointing, entering, or starting a horse in a stakes race.

Fence - Also called the "rail", generally the barrier on both sides of the racing strip.

Fetlock (Joint) - Joint placed between the long pastern bone and cannon bone, also known as the "ankle."  It is a hinge joint (ginglymus), letting flexion and extension, but negligible rotation, adduction, or seizure.

Fiber Optic Endoscope - A medical process comprised of a long, flexible tube, which has a sequence of lenses and light at the end that helps the veterinarian to view and photograph the respiratory system via the airway. Other internal organs may be observed via a tiny surgical opening.

Field - An area where the horse's race performed.

Field Horse (Or Mutuel Field) - This term describes two or more starters running as a single betting unit (entry) when there are more starters than the tote board can accommodate.

Fig - Refers to the slang for speed figure. The most famous figures (in terms of use) are speed figures which are analyzed using raw time and a variant.

Figure Eight (Nose Band) - Generally the type of noseband, which is the part of the bridle that goes around the nose of a horse. The cheek rings of a figure-eight noseband also called a crossed, Grackle, or Mexican noseband, placed the top of the horse’s cheeks. The straps intersect the horse’s nose and buckle below their chin look like a flash noseband.

Filly - This refers to the female horses, which are four-years-old or younger. These female horses remain too young to be called a mare.

Fire - A sudden increase of speed by a horse in a race. 

Firing - Thermocautery used for increasing blood flow to the leg to help to heal.

Firm (Track) - A turf course condition equivalent to fast on a dirt track. Generally, referred to a firm, resilient surface.

Fissure (Fracture) - This term is defined as a crack enlarged from the surface into, but not through, the cortex. Simply it means the longitudinal crack via only one surface of a bone.

Flag - Signal hold by an official at a short distance before the gate at the correct starting point of the race. Official timing begins when the flag is dropped by the flagman.

Flak Jacket - Normally it seems to be the jackets worn by police and military, the flak jacket guard the ribs, kidneys, and back. At a racetrack, these jackets are worn by riders, starters, workout riders and outriders.

Flank - The area between the ribs and hip of a horse. Deficient heavy musculature and the site of significant internal organs, the flank is an extremely sensitive part of the horse's body and cannot be touched by a rider's whip during a race.

Flat Race - Contested on level ground - it does not have any obstacles. Flat racing is a trial of speed, stamina, and the skill of the rider in selecting the right tactics; knowing where to place their horse in the race, when to hold back or to ask them to make an effort.

Flatten Out - At times when a horse is fully exhausted, it will flatten its head so that it's in line with the rest of its body, this is called as a flatten out and is in no way a good sign in any racehorse.

Float - An equine dental process wherein sharp points on the teeth are filed down and the instrument used to perform this procedure is called float.

Floating - Flat plate or wooden apply (float) dragged over the shell of a wet track to help in draining water.

Foal(Ed) - This term described in three ways: 1. A horse of both sex in its initial year of life. 2.  Also called as "dropped" that means to give birth 3.  Also, indicate the offspring of both a male or female parent she is the final foal of Secretariat.

Fontana Safety Rail - This refers to an aluminum rail used since 1981. It is designed to cut injuries to horse and rider. It has more of an offset (slant) to offer good clearance between the rail and the vertical posts and work as a protective cover to keep horse and jockey from hitting the posts.

Forearm - This refers to the foreleg part situated between the elbow joint and the knee (carpus), usually made up of the radius bone and the ulna.

Forelock - A lock of hair, which raises from or falls on the forehead, particularly the part of a horse's mane that falls ahead between the ears.

Founder - Also known as Laminitis, generally inflammation of the laminae of the foot, which is the soft tissue formation that joins the coffin or pedal bone of the foot to the hoof wall.

Founding Sires - Thoroughbred racing-derived its name for a reason – only those horses bred from a chosen stock are allowed to participate in Thoroughbred races. What you perhaps find surprising is that there were core 3 sires taken to England in the 17th and 18th centuries that were most accountable for the foundation of Thoroughbred racing. These foreign horses were bred with local mares, and vigilant choices ultimately led to three more renowned sires that the current Thoroughbred is based on. The original three were the Darley Arabian, the Byerley Turk, and the Godolphin Arabian. They were foreign warhorses, previously bred for power and speed, but not perfect for racing. A few inventions of breeding led to three sires that would actually define the Thoroughbred for centuries to come – Matchem, Eclipse, and Herod. All current Thoroughbreds copy their heredity back to these foundation sires.

Fractional Time - Intermediate times traced in a race, as at the quarter, half, three-quarters, etc. For example, the "quarter-time," will be the time after the first quarter-mile, not the first 25% of the race.

Fracture - This refers to a crack or breaks in a bone. Fortunately, lots of fractures these days can now be repaired if diagnosed and managed properly at an early stage.

Free Handicap - A race wherein no nomination fees are required. It simply means a handicap in horseracing wherein no liability for entrance money, stake, or forfeit is acquired until the weight assigned has been accepted clearly or by default.

Frog - The pliable support structure, generally of V-shaped present on the bottom of the foot. The sole of a horse and frog are alike in their cellular makeup to skin and thus endure a process whereby older cells “shed” over time.

Front-runner - A horse whose running style is to get on or close to the lead at the beginning of the race and to continue the pace as long as possible.

Frozen (Track) - Condition of the dirt track is generally labeled fast; wet-fast; good; slow; muddy; sloppy; heavy; or frozen. A frozen track generally has frozen moisture and can be very hard, fast, but often icy and dangerous.

Full-brother, Full-sister - This refers to the horses that share the same sire and dam.

Furlong - A unit of measurement which is equal to 220 yards. It takes eight furlongs to have a mile. These days, this unit is largely used to mark distances in horseracing.

Furosemide - A medication used for treating bleeders, commonly known in the trade name Lasix, which acts as a diuretic, dropping pressure on the capillaries. Horses who are on Lasix are denoted by (L) beside their name in racing programs.

Futurity - A race for two-year-olds wherein the owners make a constant series of payments over a period of time to keep their horses qualified. Purses for these races differ but can be considerable.


Gait -  Harness horses are classified into two different groups, pacers or trotters, which depend on their gait when racing. The gait is the way a horse moves its legs when running.

Gap - This term describes an opening in the rail where horses come in and leave the course.

Garrison Finish - A close win, usually from off the pace. This name is derived from "Snapper" Garrison, an old-time jockey given to that practice.

Gaskin - Area of the hind leg between the stifle and hock joints, including the tibia and fibula.

Gastric Ulcers - It refers to open wounds in the stomach. Ulcers are common in 70% of racehorses and more than 90% of endurance horses. Often causes signs of abdominal distress (colic) and general unthriftiness.

Gate - Another phrase for the barrier, or position a horse will start from.

Gate Card - A card, given by the starter, denoting that a horse is appropriately schooled in starting gate procedures.

Gelding - This refers to a castrated horse. Generally, all-male national hunt horses are gelded, however, sometimes flat horses can even undergo ‘the cruelest cut of all’.

Gentleman Jockey - A few lucky people enjoyed business or professional lives that give them time to spend with their horses, generally called as “gentle­man jockeys”, pure enjoyment – and not money – was their main motivation.

Get - This term refers to the progeny of sire.

Girth - This term refers to an elastic leather band, occasionally covered with sheepskin, which passes under a belly of the horse and connected to both sides of the saddle.

Good (Track) - A dirt track, which is almost swift, or a turf course somewhat softer than solid.

Good Bottom - Track, which is solid under the surface, perhaps sloppy or wet

Grab A Quarter - Injury to the hoof's back or foot occurred due to a horse stepping on itself (often affects the front foot). Being stepped on from behind in a similar way generally affects the back foot. A minor injury, which normally takes place during racing.

Graded Race - In 1973, it is founded at the demand of European racing authorities to classify selected stakes races in North America. European racing authorities have already formed group races two years earlier. Always signifies with Roman numerals I, II, or III.

Graded Stakes Race - A high-quality race that includes 3 categories: Grade 1, 2 and 3. It features the top horses, with the owner(s) willing to pay entry fees.

Graduate - This term either refers to winning of horse for the first time or a horse, which has moved up to allowance stakes, or handicap racing.

Granddam - This refers to the grandmother of a horse.

Grandsire - This refers to the horse's grandfather; father ("sire") of the dam or sire horses.

Grass Slip - Required in some areas to have permission to work out a horse on the turf course.

Gravel - Hoof infection occurred from a crack in the white line (the border between the insensitive and sensitive laminae). An abscess generally forms in the sensitive formation and ultimately breaks at the coronet due to the infection.

Gray - A horse color commonly coated as a mixture of black and white hairs. The mane, tail, and legs perhaps remain black or gray unless white markings are present.

Grayson-jockey Club Research Foundation - A charitable group, set up in 1989, which combined the Grayson Foundation (established 1940) and The Jockey Club Research Foundation (established 1982). The Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation dedicatedly work for equine medical research.

Green Osselet - In young horses, a swelling occurred in the fetlock joint, mainly on the front of the joint where the cannon and long pastern bones get together, is called a "green osselet.

Groom - Refers to the authorize handler who is responsible for the daily care of one or more racehorses

Group Race - This refers to the best group of races. Set up in 1971 by racing associations in Britain, France, Germany, and Italy to categorize chosen stakes races outside North America.

Growth Plates - A cartilage line at the ends of the long bones. These parts are liable for bone growth and development.

Guttural Pouch - On each side of the head generally close to the base of the skull, horses have two guttural pouches, which are large air-filled areas that help in regulating the blood temperature that passes through the main artery supplying circulation to the brain.


Half-brother, Half-sister - Horses born of a similar dam but by different sires. Horses with similar sire and different dams are not considered half-siblings in Thoroughbred racing.

Halter - Part of a horse’s equipment, which is placed above their head much like a bridle but without a bit. It helps in handling and control.

Hand - Four inches. A height of a horse is measured in hands and inches from the shoulder's top (withers) to the ground. Thoroughbreds usually range from 15 to 17 hands.

Hand Ride - When a jockey urging a horse with the hand up and down its neck (not using the belt).

Handicap - A race wherein the racing secretary assigns weights planned to balance the winning chances of the entrants or to study horses’ records to decide the chances of each to win the race.

Handily - This refers to working or racing with modest effort, more than a breeze. It simply means "in hand", being asked to run by the jockey with the hands, but not pushed tough.

Handle - Refers to the total amount of money wager on a single race, day or season.

Hard (Track) - A turf course conditions where there is no resiliency to the surface.

Hard Boot - Indicate a well-moved breeder whose boots are caked with mud and thus hard-by extension, a breeder or trainer whose ways are classified as old-fashioned. Generally used in the term Kentucky hard-boot.

Harrow - The horse field harrow is intended to level and loosen riding surfaces. It includes two spring-loaded tine rows that loosen the surface, a leveler making the surface completely even and a tilling roller compacting the ground and leaving a finished surface rightly suited for horse’s hoof.

Head - A margin between the horses during the race i.e. one horse leading another by the span of his head.

Head Of The Stretch - This refers to the beginning of the straight run to the end line. Simply means the beginning of the homestretch.

Heat - This term either refers to a race wherein more than one running is needed to decide the winner or refers to a breeding term for e.g. estrus.

Heaves - An allergic inflammatory and obstructive disease that affect older horses, also known as Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO) or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This condition is more alike human asthma. 

Heavy (Track) - A grass-racing surface, which has an excess of water and is an almost bog-like condition.

Heel Crack - Also known as sand crack, describes a crack on the heel of the hoof.

Helmet - A form of preventive headgear worn by riders, when riding horses. They are specially designed to protect the head of riders during falls off a horse, particularly from a hard object or being accidentally hit in the head by a horse's hoof.

Hematoma - A restricted collection of blood and other fluid, a hematoma often presents as a soft swelling on the hindquarters, chest, and rarely on the barrel, beside the ribcage. A hematoma usually occurs as the aftermath of trauma, such as a well-placed kick or a fall.

High Weight - The highest weight allocated or carried in a race.

Hip - A joint occurred in the hindquarters that are formed by the pelvis and the femur.

Hit The Board - When a horse finishes in first, second, third or fourth place, and their name appears on the winners' board.

Hock - A large joint, which is just over the shinbone in the rear legs. Hock joints are usually difficult to treat with modalities like cryotherapy or moist heat due to their size and irregular contour.

Home Stretch - It refers to a horse racing game. The players signify the owners and riders of the horses in the race and the people betting on the race. To begin the game, each player receives a specified amount of cash, which is used to bid on horses.

Homebred - A horse, which is bred and raced by its current owner.

Homestretch Or Stretch - The final straight part of the racetrack to the finish.

Hood - A nylon covering, this covers the ears and head of horses, leaving their eyeholes to see. It doesn't use for attention but rather horses that perhaps nervous of crowds and noises.

Hoof - Refers to the foot of the horse, comprises of several parts, which plays an essential role in supporting the weight of the horse.

Hopped - The slang describing a horse on banned stimulants.

Horse - When referring according to gender, a 'horse' is an ungelded male five-years-old or older.

Horsing - The behaviour of a mare (female horse five years old) in heat (in season).

Hot Walker - A person who walks a horse after workout or racing to cool them out gives them drinks of water and brings their system back to normal.

Hung - A horse that holds the same position, unable to advance and be the winner.

Hyaluronic Acid - Found normally synovial fluid of horse. This fluid is contained in movable joints. Hyaluronic acid makes synovial fluid viscous and lubricates the joint surfaces.


Icing - This term either refers to a physical therapy process called cryotherapy or when a horse stands in an ice tub, or ice packs are applied to their legs for reducing inflammation and/or swelling.

Im - Short form for intra-muscular, which is an injection given in a muscle. These injections are quite easy to give to a horse because of their huge muscle mass.

Impaction - A blockage within the gastrointestinal tract of a horse. It is typically caused by a growth of solid material, generally food or partially formed feces, which prevents the regular passage of gut contents that causes discomfort or pain and shows classic signs of colic in horses.

Impost - In a handicap (horse handicap race), each horse should carry the desired weight called the impost, assigned by the racing secretary or steward depending on their past performances, so as to balance the odds of the competitors.

In Foal - Refers to a pregnant mare (a female horse, four-year-old or older).

In Hand - When a horse is under restraint that means running under moderate control, at less than top pace.

In The Bridle - When a horse is eager to run in the race.

In The Money - When a horse finishes their race in the top three positions.

Inferior Check Ligament - Also known as the distal check ligament or accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon, which is an essential soft-tissue structure in the equine athlete. It has a joint from the back of the lower carpal (knee) bones to the deep flexor tendon.

Infield - Refer to an area inside a closed horse racing or auto racing track, or a region encircled by the track of a roller coaster.

Inquiry - Stewards or judges reviewing the race to ensure that there is no rule violation occurred in the field.

Insensitive Laminae - Laminitis generally occurs due to the interference (constant, sporadic or short-term) of blood flow to the sensitive and insensitive laminae. These laminae formation within the foot secure the coffin bone to the hoof wall. Inflammation often eternally weakens the laminae and hinders with the wall/bone bond. In severe situations, the bone and the hoof wall can split, the coffin bone can rotate within the foot, be displaced down and ultimately infiltrate the sole. Laminitis can distress one or all feet, but commonly seen in the front feet.

Intra-articular - Lameness is an important factor of degraded performance in many types of horses. Pain-related to joints is among the most common causes, and intra-articular injections are a significant way of addressing this problem.

Irish Rail - Generally known as a movable rail. In Ireland, horse racing is intricately associated with Irish culture and society. In the mid-19th century, the racehorse industry in Ireland saw a great decline due to the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars. Economic strife brought less investment in horse breeding, and competent horses were more potential to be raced in England where the award money was bigger. However, with the development of the Irish rail network, racecourses spread up in new locations and a large number of people traveling by train to race meetings that railways began giving free travel to contending horses.

Irons - Known as stirrups, a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, joint to the saddle by a strap,  usually made of metal. They are no longer made of iron, now stainless steel or aluminum is used to make them.

Ischemia - Blood supply deficiency, which perhaps temporary or permanent, caused by the closing of the blood vessels.

Isolation Barn - A facility used for separating sick horses from healthy ones.

Itw - Short form for Intertrack wagering which means parimutuel wagering on simulcast horse or dog races held at an establish sending track by customers at a gaming facility licensed under this section and the electronic transmission of the bet to the establish sending track.

Iv - Short form for intravenous, which is an injection given in the vein. 


Jack Spavin - This term is used to describe the type of bone spavin (generally known as osteoarthritis) in which lesion on the tarsal and carpal bones become large, and high spavin when the pathology takes place higher in the joint than is usual.

Jail - This refers to the necessity that a horse, which has been claimed that next run in a claiming race, must run for a claiming price 25% higher for the next 30 days. Commonly used in the expression the horse is in (out of) jail.

Jockey Fee - A base sum paid to a rider for riding a horse in a race.

Jockey's Race - A race whose result will hinge mostly on calculated thinking by the riders; i.e., one in which riders must pay close eyes on pace to keep their horses fresh for a powerful finish.

Jog - This refers to a very slow trot, which is a two-beat diagonal step of the horse where the diagonal pairs of legs move on together with a moment of suspension between each beat.

Joint - This refers to the hinge between two bones in the musculoskeletal system.

Joint Capsule - The structure, which comprises the boundary to the joint space.

Jumper - Steeplechase or hurdle horse that should be able to clear jumps with ease, and even show a fast pickup and speed between the jumps. This leads to the conformation qualities of both the sprinter and the stayer.

Juvenile - This refers to a two-year-old horse of any gender.


Key Horse - This refers to a single horse, which is used in numerous combinations in an exotic bet.


Lactic Acid - Organic acid usually presents in muscle tissue, formed by anaerobic muscle metabolism as a by-product of workout. The lactic acid increase can cause muscle fatigue, inflammation, and pain.

Lame - When horses become unable to walk or keep a normal stance. Some forms of lameness just only hobble the horse and restrict its movement, while others cause the horse to remain to put.

Laminae - Refers to the hoof's part. The sensitive laminae and the insensitive laminae intermesh mutually to grip the hoof wall to the coffin bone. The sensitive laminae are packed with nerves and blood vessels, which help carry the horse’s lower leg and hoof.

Laminitis - Generally an inflammation of the laminae of the foot – the soft tissue formations that fix the coffin or pedal bone of the foot to the hoof wall. It causes severe pain and leads to the unsteadiness of the coffin bone in the hoof.

Lasix - A diuretic that can treat fluid retention (edema) and swelling occurred due to congestive heart failure, liver disease, kidney disease, and other medical problems.

Late Double - Often provided on the day's final two races; some tracks provide a "rolling double" - a daily double begins on each race on the program excluding the last race.

Lateral - Near the side and beyond the center. Pertains to aside.

Lathered (Up) - Developing a foam of sweat from working intensely. The horses lathered up a lot during the race

Lead [Led] - Lead weights held in pockets on both sides of the saddle used to frame the difference between the real weight of the rider and the weight the horse has been allocated to hold during the race.

Lead [Leed]  - This term either refers to rope or strap fixed to a halter or bridle by which a horse is led or the front leg, which is last to strike the ground during a gallop or canter.

Lead [Leed] Pony - Someone who helps a racehorse with its training, either in practice and on the day of a race.

Leaky Roof Circuit - A derogatory phrase for minor tracks.

Leg Up - To help a rider escalate a horse or a rider having the mount.

Length - This term either used to describe a measurement unit for the length of a horse from nose to tail, about 8 feet (2.4 m) or generally used in Thoroughbred horse racing to describe the distance between horses in a race.

Ligament - A fibrous tissue band linking bones that serve to support and strengthen joints and to bound the range of motion.

Listed Race - A stakes race just under a group race or graded race in terms of quality.

Lock - Slang used for a "sure thing" winner.

Lug (In Or Out) - The action of an exhausting horse, bearing in or out, failing to keep a straight path.

Lunge - When a rider lunges a horse, it moves around in a circle on the finish of a lunge line. Lunging is a useful workout for both horse and handler. It is a method that allows horses to safely burn off additional energy without riding them and can help when teaching horse duty.


Machine - An unlawful and brutal electrical device, used by riders to stimulate a horse during a race. Also known as a battery or a joint.

Magnetic Therapy - Physical therapy that uses magnetic fields. The low-energy electrical field formed by the magnetic field causes the blood vessels dilation (vasodilation) and tissue stimulation. Magnetic therapy perhaps used on soft tissue to treat different injuries of horses.

Maiden - Horses, which have not won a race, are referred to as maidens.

Maiden Race - An event for horses, which have not won any race. Maiden races are held over different distances and conditions, with eligibility depending on the sex or age of the horse.

Mane - Long hairs building on the crest of the horse's neck, generally kept clipped to about six inches in length for tidiness, or decoratively braided.

Mare - Refers to a female horse, which is five-years-old or older.

Mare's Month - Refers to September. Theoretically, like mares, which have not run well during the summer usually “wake up” in September.

Margin - This term describes the distance between horses at a specific point in the race, generally weighed in lengths. For the leader, it will be the distance he/she was in front of the second-place horse. For other horses, it will be the distance they trailed the leader.

Mash - A soft, wet mixture of wheat/rice bran, which is mixed into boiling water. It is a staple in the feeding rule of some horsemen and a conventional meal for horses improving from sickness, for mares quickly following foaling, and for old horses with dental issues. It is the best meal to be given after an intense workout by a horse, especially when he/she does not drink enough during an intense session.

Massage - Making muscles relax from tension and knots. It can have long-term benefits for a horse by maintaining muscles so they can perform to their best potential.

Medial - Pertaining to the core in anatomy, nearer the medial plane (the horizontal plane that bisects the center).

Medication List - A list kept by the track veterinarian and printed by the track and Daily Racing Form, which shows horses have been treated with legal medicines.

Metacarpal (Fracture) - This usually refers to the cannon bone fracture. The cannon bone lies between the knee and the fetlock joint in the front leg. Also known to be a fracture of the splint bone.

Mid-body (Fracture) - Generally known as sesamoid, a condition that takes place when the sesamoid bones become inflamed and cannot function appropriately. It affects athletic horses, particularly those, which put extreme pressure or stress on the sesamoid bones during the workout.

Middle Distance - A race more than seven furlongs but shorter than 1 1/8 miles. All contests must run over trips from 1m2f-1m4f.

Minus Pool - It takes place when there are various winners that the racetrack handling the bet cannot take its share of the handle or takeout and pay the necessary winnings payable to the winning bettors.

Money Rider - A rider who does extremely well in rich races.

Monkey-on-a-stick - The style of riding with short stirrups. It was popularized by US jockey Ted Sloan, which invented the phrase "monkey on a stick" to describe the position.

Monorchid - A horse having only one testis. In horses with high breeding possibilities, the non-descended testicle perhaps removed and the normal testicle will be left in position.

Morning Glory - This refers to a racehorse, which runs faster in the morning exercise than in afternoon races.

Morning Line - A record of entries for a horse race with the possible betting odds as predicted by a bookmaker or track handicapper, typically issued the morning of the race, before betting begins.

Mudder - This refers to a racehorse, which runs well on a wet or muddy track.

Muddy (Track) - Deep racetrack's condition after being soaked with water.

Musculoskeletal System - There are various types of muscles in the horse's body. Two of these are skeletal muscle and smooth muscle, which are part of the musculoskeletal system. Skeletal muscles are for posture and movement, whereas, smooth muscle helps aid many involuntary processes like the blood flow, the movement of food along the digestive tract in the body of a horse.

Mutuel Field - Two or more starters running as a particular betting unit, when there are more entrants than positions on the totalisator board can hold.

Mutuel Pool - Short for “parimutuel pool” that is the total amount of money bet on a horse race.

Muzzle - This term either refers to the nose and lips of a horse or a guard placed above a horse's mouth to stop it from biting or eating.


Name (Of A Thoroughbred) - Refers to the Names of North American Thoroughbreds that are registered by The Jockey Club. Their length should not go beyond 18 characters, including punctuation and spaces. Nasogastric Tube - A long, bendable hose inserted into a horse's nostrils to the pharynx, the formation, which serves as the entrance to both the esophagus and the trachea.

National Thoroughbred Racing Association (Ntra) - An international alliance of more than 100 horse racing welfares and individual stakeholders that includes horseplayers, racetrack workers, proprietors, breeders, trainers and affiliated associations of horse racing, charged with increasing the popularity, interests and honor of Thoroughbred racing via consensus-based guidance, lawmaking support, safety and honor plans, supporters meeting and corporate partner upsurge.

Navicular Bone - A little, flattened bone, broad in the center, which resembles a flying saucer from an early sci-fi movie. It sits deep within the foot's back portion, be located between the coffin bone (P3 - third phalanx) and the short pastern bone (P2 - second phalanx).

Navicular Disease - A progressive degenerative condition that involves the navicular bone (which is situated behind the coffin bone in the hoof), the bursa and the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) of either one or both front feet.

Near Side - This refers to the left side of a horse. Side on that a horse is mounted.

Neck - Refers to the unit of measurement. About the span of a horse’s neck; a little below a quarter of a length.

Nerving - Also called as “nerving,” it can be a choice to ease the pain linked with the navicular disease when other treatments such as shoeing changes and injections are no longer to control pain. The surgery includes removing both the lateral and medial palmar digital nerves on the pastern's back.

Netlon - Brand name for a plastic mesh that is mixed into the soil of a turf course.

Neurectomy - This term is generally known as “nerving”, which is considered a “last resort” process performed on horses with caudal heel lameness disease or navicular disease that hasn't reacted to therapeutic shoeing and medication.

New Shooter - A horse that skipped the Kentucky Derby to run in the Preakness Stakes or Belmont Stakes.

Night Eyes - Also known as "chestnuts" is a small horny growth on the inside of each leg with a different mold for each horse. These are even used as identification help and they can be pretty valuable in reviewing photos of horses submitted to The Jockey Club registry.

Nod - Means lowering of head. To win by a nod, a horse expands its head with its nose touching the end line before a close competitor.

Nom De Course - Name adopted by a group of horse owners or an individual for racing purposes.

Nominator This term refers to registering a horse as an entry in a race.

Non-sweater Known as Anhidrosis in the horse, a medical condition usually occurs in horses residing in hot and humid environments. The affected horses remain unable to regulate their body temperatures properly via sweating and have dire consequences.

Nose - The smallest benefit by which a horse can win. In Britain, it is called a short head.

Nose Band - The part of a horse's bridle, which surrounds the nose and jaw of the horse. It is used to keep the horse's mouth closed without interrupting their breath and to keep the bit in place.


Oaks - Known as the English Classic horse races (along with the Derby, Saint Leger, Two Thousand Guineas, and

One Thousand Guineas) - This event is organized for three-year-old fillies and it is named for the near residence of the 12th Earl of Derby, whose horse Bridget won the first running.

Objection - Foul claim lodged by rider, patrol judge or other officials.

Oblique (Fracture) - Refers to fracture at an angle. By applying traction, simple long oblique fractures are reduced. It needs the help of self-retaining bone reduction forceps which is located on both segments.

Ocd Lesion - A cartilaginous or bony injury, which is the result of a failure in growth. OCD (Osteochondritis dissecans) is a pain, if left untreated, can put long-term harmful effects on the young, growing horse or the race performing horse. It is a disease subset of osteochondrosis and is classified under the umbrella phrase of developmental orthopedic disease.

Odds-on - When you notice fractional odds the other way round – for e.g. 1/4 – this is called odds-on and means the horse in question is a most beloved to win the race.

Off Side - This term refers to the right side of the horse.

Official - This term either used to refer notice displayed when a race result is achieved or used for denoting a racing official.

Off-track Betting - Any gambling, which takes place away from the real horse racetrack, hosting the live race. Overall, this covers most of the betting that occurs on any race, as only a small percentage of the gamblers will be betting at the track at once.

Oiled (Oiling) - Mineral oil's administration through a nasogastric tube to reduce gas or pass the blockage. The preventative procedures usually used in long van rides to avoid impaction with consequent colics.

On The Bit - When a horse is keen to run in the race. Also called “in the bridle.”

On The Board - When a horse finishes the race in the first three positions.

On The Muscle - When a horse is dragging its rider around the track or dragging its hotwalker around the shedrow. This horse looks frisky, fit, and full of life, perhaps needs to race soon!

On The Nose - The type of gamble in American horse racing. It is the set expression that means a handicapper gambles on the win of some horse.

Open Fracture - When the skin is broken and damage occurs to the blood supply to the limb.

Open Knee - A condition of little horses wherein the physis of the knee has not closed; an immature knee. Often used for describing the status of the physis quickly over the knee and is an indicator of long bone development in two-year-olds.

Optional Claiming - A race wherein horses perhaps entered for a specified claiming price for a cutback in assigned weight

Osselet - A callous, which takes place when the horse's fetlock joint becomes arthritic. The condition starts with chronic stress damage to the capsule of the front fetlock joint from constant concussive forces during racing and hard work out.

Osteoarthritis - Spontaneous joint disease i.e. a permanent form of arthritis with gradual loss of the articular cartilage in a joint. It is a common cause of lameness and poor performance in the horse.

Otb - Short from for Off-track betting, which denotes sanctioned betting on horse racing outside a race track

Out Of The Money - A horse, which doesn't win, place or show that means this horse finishes worse than third

Over At The Knee - A leg that looks like it has a forward arc with its mid at the knee when viewed from the side.

Overcheck - Known as a bearing rein, a piece of horse tack, which runs from a point on their back, above the head, to a bit? It is used for preventing the horse from lowering its head beyond a set point.

Overgirth - An elastic band, which goes totally around a horse, above the saddle, to prevent it from slipping.

Overland - When a horse races wide throughout, outside of other horses.

Overlay - When you see a horse’s projected price is worth more than your evaluation. In your opinion, if it is above its value, then it deserves a bet. That is an overlay.

Overnight - The racing secretary's office published a sheet that lists the entries for an upcoming racing card.

Overnight Race - A race wherein entries close at a predefined time before running (such as 48 hours), rather than a stakes race for which nominations close weeks and occasionally months in advance.

Over-reaching - This term describes a horse self-inflicting trauma on the heel part of a front foot by striking it with the toe of the shoe on a hindfoot. When horses are running at speed, varying directions and slow down fast, this incident takes place.

Overweight - Additional weight carried by a horse when the jockey cannot make the required weight.


P3 - The bottommost bone (the coffin bone) in the front and rear legs of horses, usually encased by the hoof capsule.

Pace - This term refers to a two-beat gait where the face and hind legs on the same side of the horse’s body, move in unity. Also, the rhythm set by the influential in the early or middle stages of a race.

Pacemaker - This refers to a horse that sets the pace for others. Generally, mediocre horses perhaps entered into major races particularly to set the pace for better horses from the same stable.

Pacesetter - When a top-notch horse set the pace for other horses in racing.

Paddle - The horse's tendency to toe-in while running i.e. a conformation flaw wherein the front of the foot faces in and appears pigeon-toed, which causes the leg to swing outward at some point in locomotion.

Paddock - A small field used to keep horses. It is an enclosure at a racetrack where the horses are gathered, saddled, and paraded prior to each race.

Paddock Judge - This judge manages the assembly of the horses in the saddling paddock before a race, oversees the saddling of the horses, and keeps the detail of all equipment used on each horse (reporting any changes to the Stewards).

Paint - Counter-irritant used for increasing blood supply, blood flow and promoting healing in the leg. A gentle form of blistering.

Palmer - The rear of the front limb, from the knee, down.

Panel - A slang phrase for a furlong, which is the standard unit of measure for distance in horse racing.

Parimutuel(S) - A form of betting originated in 1865 by Frenchman Pierre Oller wherein all money bet is split up among those who have winning tickets, after taxes, takeout, and other subtractions are made.

Parlay - A multi-race bet wherein all winnings are consequently wagered on each succeeding race.

Parrot Mouth - Foals with an overbite, having top incisors, which protrude past the lower incisors. It is a very adverse, inherited quality when a horse's lower jaw is shorter than the upper one.

Part - Used by the International Cataloguing Standards Committee to divide races from several countries for sales cataloging intentions. The Jockey Club Information Systems prints the yearly International Cataloguing Standards Book.

Part Wheel - A type of wheel bet in which the bettor picks one horse to finish in a specific position, along with some of the other horses in the race to finish in the other positions, which qualify on the type of bet.

Past Performances - Records that usually comprise a speed figure for each horse running in a race, which may be measured in Beyer Speed Figures or Equibase Speed Figures, two common methods to judge a horse's racing prowess.

Pasteboard Track - This refers to a lightning-fast racing surface.

Pastern (Bones) - A part of the horse's leg between the fetlock and the top of the hoof. It includes the long pastern bone (proximal phalanx) and the short pastern bone (middle phalanx), both are held together by paired ligaments of two sets to form the pastern joint (proximal interphalangeal joint).

Patrol Judge(S) - An official who make sure that horse races are running safely and fairly, without any violations of the rule. He/she monitor horse races at the racetrack and keep an eye out for anything that may reason the race to be unfair.

Pattern Race - Also known as Group races or Graded races in some jurisdictions is the top level of races in Thoroughbred horseracing. They include the iconic races of the world, such as, in Europe, The Derby, Irish Derby and Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, in Australia, the Melbourne Cup and the United States, the Kentucky Derby, and Breeders' Cup races.

Pedal Bone - Also known as the coffin bone, which is the bottommost bone in the front and rear legs of horses, which is covered by the hoof capsule.

Perfecta - Also known as Exacta betting in which the bettor chooses two horses to finish in the first and second place positions (Win and Place), in correct order. Both horses should finish in the selected order, or the bet is lost.

Periostitis - The tissue's (periosteum) inflammation that overlies bone. The cannon bone's periostitis is known as bucked shins, while the splint bone's periostitis is called a splint.

Phenylbutazolidan - Generally known as BUTE, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, legal in many racing jurisdictions. Often called by the trade name Butazolidin.

Phenylbutazone - A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, which helps reduce potent pain, lameness, an antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory condition in horses.

Photo Finish - All finish marks at the racetrack have a camera, which is motion-triggered. This camera takes a pic of the horses to cross the finish line. When the race is very close to call with the naked eye, the race is called a photo finish as the pictures are used to determine the winner's result. 

Physis - This refers to the growth plate at the last part of the long bones (such as the cannon bone), which allows the bone to grow in length.

Pick (Number) - A kind of multi-race gambler wherein the winners of all the included races must be selected. Commonly, Pick Three (sometimes known as the Daily Triple), Pick Six and Pick Nine.

Pill - Small number ball placed into a bottle to determine the post-position for all horses in a race.

Pin Firing - Thermocautery used for increasing blood flow to the leg, reputedly to help to heal.

Pinched Back - A horse forced back because of racing in close quarters.

Pinhook, Pinhooking - This refers to a person who buys yearling horses at auction for a purpose of reselling them at a two-year-old auction at a hefty price. One of the profitable endeavor for many. 

Pinhooker - Someone who purchases a racehorse with the specific aim of conditioning, training, and re-selling them at a high profit.

Pipe-opener - This term is used to describe a small, sharp gallop where the lungs of horses are cleared and its circulatory system stimulated. Performed earlier than the horse starts a fast or extended workout.

Place - A horse that finishes the race in the second position.

Place Bet - One of the simplest bets in racing: simply choose the horse you think will cross the line first or second. The Place bet payoffs are lesser than a Win bet as the pool of monies gambled is divided between the horse that wins and the runner-up horse.

Placing Judge - An official who placed the order of finish in a race. In most states, the stewards must verify the final order of finish earlier to posting the race as official.

Plantar - Related to the foot's sole or back of the hind limb from the hock down.

Plantar Ligament - The large ligament, which is underneath and at the back of the hock joint.

Plate(S) - This term either refers to a race where the prize money is of a set amount or also the explanation of a horse's shoe.

Plater - This refers to an inferior racehorse that means a horse that runs mainly in a plate.

Pocket - Refers to a spot in a race with horses leading and alongside.

Point(S) Of Call - Position of horses at different locations on the racetrack where their running positions are noted on a chart. The locations differ with the distance of the race.

Pole - Markers at calculated distances around the racetrack allocating the distance from the finish.

Poll - It refers to the peak of the head, between the ears.

Pony - At the racetrack, any horse who is a small horse of any of several breeds, generally not higher at the shoulder than 14½ hands (58 in./146 cm) or not considered as a racehorse is called Pony.

Pool - Method of betting wherein all money gamble on the result of a particular event by several people is awarded to one or more winners according to conditions set in advance (taxes, operating costs, and other charges may be subtracted from the total pool before prizes are given).

Popped A Splint - A wound to the splint bone itself plus any trauma that strains or tears the interosseous ligament will cause anger. The result is a painful, swollen lump, which can be observed on the side of the horse’s leg under the knee or hock. At this moment, the animal joins a very large fraternity of horses that have “popped a splint.” A splint is a common incidence when training and workout increase too rapidly. 

Post - Rising from and descending to the saddle by the pace of a horse at a trot.

Post Parade - When horses run off the paddock and pass the stands on their path to the starting gate.

Post Position - The position at the starting gate a horse will begin at in a race. They are arbitrarily picked, first, they select the name of horses and then which post position they will begin from.

Post Time - The set time frame for a race to start. An example of post time is when the bell sounds to signal that horses must start running.

Posterior - A position, wherein the hind legs are taken first, is sometimes tricky and dangerous for the mare and foal.

Preferred List - Horses with earlier rights to start, usually because they have earlier been entered in races that have not packed with the minimum number of starters.

Prep (Race) - A race (or workout) used to prepare a horse for a bigger event. Many trainers enter their horses in prep race so that they can be ready for future events.

Prop - The dangerous activity in which a horse stops moving by digging its front feet into the ground.

Proximal - It means toward the body, i.e., the proximal cannon part is the top portion of the cannon bone.

Public Trainer - This refers to a trainer who is not especially engaged by one owner or stable, so train horses of different owners.

Pull Up - The action of stopping or slowing down the speed of a horse during or after a race or workout.

Pulled Suspensory - When the suspensory ligament is sprained and inflammation grows in a horse.

Purse - The amount of money shared by the first five winners in a race. Sometimes the purse can be split into more participants, in which, the winning horse usually gets 60% of the total amount.


Quarantine Barn - A barn wherein a horse was diagnosed with the neuropathogenic strain of EHV during the quarantine time, and which has been so chosen by the NJDA.

Quarter Crack - Painful crack in the wall of the hoof. A full-depth hoof wall defect placed in the quarter of the hoof between the toe and heel of the horse's foot. The quarter crack initiated at the coronary band and expand at an angle toward the ground.

Quarter Pole - A pole, which is of red and white striped use to signal that the finish line is one-quarter of a mile away.

Quinella - Bet in which bettors chose runners to finish 1st and 2nd in any order. A quinella is a tote wagering product, so the winning payable varies according to the amount of money placed on the correct first two choices.


Rabbit - A horse, which is considered to have a very low chance of winning a race but is entered simply to ensure a fast pace and tire out the other front-runners, softening up the contest for the advantage of an entry mate.

Race Meet - A racetrack gathering over a selected number of precise days to run Thoroughbred races.

Racecard - A plan for a race day, which lists the individual races and the name, age, and sex of each horse scheduled to contest. It even includes their recent performances and the name of their jockey, trainer, and owner.

Racemare - Refers to a female horse (mare) who has contested in sanctioned Thoroughbred races.

Racetrack Or Racecourse - A flat surface made of dirt, grass (turf) or synthetic material, often set in an oval shape, where races are performed. Races can be run in a counterclockwise or clockwise direction around the racetrack.

Racing Secretary - An official who proposed conditions of races and assigns weights for handicap events.

Radiograph - The initial approach of diagnostic imaging used in the evaluation of lameness. The greater part of radiographs of the distal portions of equine limbs is attained with portable x-ray units (small and relatively lightweight).

Rail - The term used to describe an inside fence on a racetrack.

Rail Runner - A horse who wish to run next to the inside rail. The term also refers to the rider who loves the rail, such as the great Calvin Borel, who gets the nickname, "Bo-RAIL."

Rank - A horse, which is fractious and hard for the rider to handle.

Rank Outsider - A horse, which is not expected to win a race.

Rate - To hold back horses early on in the race so that their conserve energy is used at the appropriate time.

Rattle - A horse that usually fond of a solid turf surface.

Receiving Barn - The structure used by horses entering for a race who do not have a stand at that racetrack.

Redboard - Boasting about a winning bet after the competition has been completed, but never speaking about the bet before the race was run. Withholding of excellent information before a horse race then boasting about the winner after the race is ended and the wager is safely cashed.

Re-entered - The reason by which the horse was scratched out of the race was that either the horse was entered in another race on that day or performs at the same track or another track or the horse has to run in another race in the next few days.

Refuse - When a horse is unwilling to take a start or perform on the track.  

Reins - A leather strap, fixed firmly to each end of the bit of a bridle, by which the jockey controls a horse. Generally, riders pull one rein to make the horse turn and pull both to make the horse stop.

Reserve - A minimum cost, assigned by the consignor, for a horse in a public auction.

Reserved - A horse held in check by its rider so that the horse can use its whole energy at the right time. Some horses are difficult to reserve and show a tendency to full out every time.

Respiratory System - A horse circulates air around its internal organs by this means. The respiratory system starts with the nares usually called the nostrils that increase greatly during an intense workout.

Ridden Out - This refers to a horse, which wins under an energetic hand ride but is not being whipped. It means the Jockey has asked full of the energy from his/her horse to win the race.

Ride Short - Shortening the stirrup leathers so that the irons become very high on the horse. In short stirrup, the rider has to crouch higher on the horse.

Ridgling ("Rig") - Male horse, which has retained one testicle within the body. Simply the term describes either a cryptorchid or monorchid. It can be treated with surgery.

Ring Bone - A lay term used for describing any bony growth on the dorsal surface of the pastern. This occurred due to periostitis of the proximal or middle phalanx or osteoarthritis (OA) of the PIP joint (‘high ringbone’) or DIP joint (‘low ringbone’). Ringbone remains either articular or non-articular.

Rna - Acronym of “reserve not attained,” is another mode of representing a no-sale. The RNA rate was significantly lower because of the large number of horses sold after they left the ring.

Roan - One of the main colors of a thoroughbred racehorse, even it is rare as compared to black, brown or bay. It usually remains a mix of white and red or brown hair.

Roaring (Laryngeal Hemiplegia) - This term is not often used these days, however, it was generally used to describe a horse, which coughs while exercise. The cough is usually deep and prolonged and perhaps a sign of a lasting problem.

Rogue - This refers to a horse, which is known for its short-tempered behavior.  This horse sometimes bites or kick its handlers, or even savaging other horses during the race. John Henry was one of the most popular rogues in history.

Rogue's Badge - A hood or blinker usually puts on a racehorse. A most common piece of racing equipment these days.

Route - A race distance of 1 mile or longer. Though horses that succeeded at routes are experts but do not do well at a short distance.

Router - A horse, which performs excellent at long distance. Sometimes called a miller.

Ruled Off - When offender faces a permanent suspension as a punishment for infraction of rules during a race.

Run Down - Refers to abrasions of the heel. It occurs due to the contact with the dirt and sand of the track surface.

Rundown Bandages - Bandages on the hind legs that included a pad placed inside, to keep a horse from "burning" or scraping his heels while racing.

Run-out Bit - A special kind of bit that prevents a horse from bearing out (or in).


Saddle - The tool used in horse riding offers comfort and stability to the rider and the horse. Early saddles were just thick padding strapped above the horse's back that provides the rider with extra comfort. Horse racing saddles are now changed significantly from these humble beginnings.

Saddle Cloth - A cotton cloth that goes below the saddle to soak up sweat. Its colors correspond to the postpositions the horse is opening at most thoroughbred racetracks. They help the caller, owners, trainers, and fans recognize the horses in the race.

Saddle Pad - Refer to pads, blanks or fabrics inserted below a saddle. These are generally used to soak up sweat, cushion the saddle, and prevent the horse's back.

Sand Crack - A fissure or break in the hoof of a horse, widening from the coronet downward toward the sole, generally caused by a horn's dryness.

Saucer (Fracture) - Generally known as a stress fracture present in the distal third of the dorsolateral cortex of MCIII. These fractures usually take place in horses that have earlier bucked their shins.

Savage - When horses bite another horse or a person.

Scale Of Weights - Fixed weights to be carried by a horse in accordance with his/her age, gender, race distance and time of year.

Schooling - Way to familiarize horses with the starting gate and teaching them racing practices. A horse can even be schooled in the paddock. In steeplechasing, this term refers precisely to teaching a horse to jump.

Schooling List - List of horses needed by the starter to school at the starting gate before being allowed to race.

Scintigraphy - An advanced imaging technique used to assess certain abnormalities of the skeleton. It uses radioactive tracers, which helps in identifying bone metabolism changes before they become visible on radiographs.

Scratch - A horse, which has been taken out of a race before it starts. Trainers generally scratch horses because of unfavorable track conditions or ill health of a horse. A veterinarian may scratch a horse at any time.

Screw Fixation - A medical procedure wherein steel-alloy screws are surgically inserted to hold together a broken bone.

Sealed Track - A racetrack, which has been packed down.

Second Call - The second appointment of rider, who is already listed for the mount in a race.

Second Dam - Also known as grand-dam, simply means the grandmother of the horse.

Selling Race - A race is one in which the winner is raised for sale quickly after the race.

Sensitive Laminae - The hoof's area, which contains nerves and vessels. Laminitis is a swelling of the laminae that occur due to the disruption of blood flow to the sensitive and insensitive laminae inside the foot.

Sesamoid (Fracture) - A rupture of the sesamoid bone(s) at the rear of the fetlock joint. Often take place at the end of a race or workout when the horse is exhausted.

Sesamoid Bones - This refers to the two small bones, which lie at the rear of the fetlock joint. These bones play a crucial role as part of the suspensory equipment supporting the fetlock joint. This apparatus even includes ligaments, which lie at the rear of the cannon bone and pastern.

Sesamoiditis - This refers to the pain linked with the proximal sesamoid bones. It often occurs from inflammation at the line of the suspensory ligament and distal sesamoidean ligaments with the sesamoid bones.

Set - A group of horses, which are exercising together.

Set Down - This term either refers to a suspension e.g. The rider was set down three days for casual riding or when a rider assumes a lower crouch in the saddle while asking the horse to pick up the pace.

Sex Allowance - The weight payment fillies and mares get when running against males.

Shadow Roll - A tool generally made of sheepskin or synthetic material, which attaches to the noseband of the bridle. A horse that tries to jump shadows will put a shadow roll on it so that it cannot see what is below them, they can't look the shadows so they won't attempt to jump them.

Shank - A leather lead strap that is approx eight feet long with a length of chain on the end. It is used to control a headstrong horse.

Shedrow - A row of sheds; particularly refers to a row of barns for horses at the beginning of a race track.

Sheets - A handicapping device, which assigns a numerical value to each race, run by a horse to allow different horses running at different racetracks to be impartially compared.

Shoe Boil - A fancy method to describe a soft squishy swelling on or very close to the horse's elbow. They are usually caused by the hoof's heel or the horseshoe's heel squishing into the elbow while a horse is lying down.

Short - This refers to a horse that lacks necessary conditioning. This horse needs more work or racing to reach a winning form.

Shoulder - The area at the neck's base, structured by the scapula and the humerus. The shoulder's angle is typically similar to that of the foreleg pastern.

Show - This refers to the third position at the end of horse racing.

Show Bet - One of the simplest bets in which bettors need to pick a horse to finish in the first, second or third position in a particular race. If bettor's horse runs 1st or 2nd or 3rd: they win their Show Bet.

Shut Off - Blocked by another horse i.e. not able to improve position because of being surrounded by other horses.

Silks - Jacket and cap are worn by a jockey that authorizes the owner of the horse.

Silks/Colors - Every owner of a horse has his or her set of colors, which makes it easy to recognize them in a race. E.g., Queen Elizabeth II has jockey silk, which is a purple and scarlet jacket with gold braiding, plus a black cap.

Silky Sullivan - An American thoroughbred racehorse, which was renowned for his come-from-behind racing style. His name is now a phrase used in sports that defines someone who seems so far behind the contest that they cannot win, but they do.

Simple (Fracture) - A rupture along a single line that does not penetrate the skin.

Simulcast - A broadcast of a horse race which allows betting at two or more sites; the simulcast usually entails the transmission of betting information to a central site, so that all wagers may bet in the same wagering pool, plus the broadcast of the race.

Sire - The male parent of a horse, a stallion, is generally called as the sire.

Slab (Fracture) - A rupture in one of the major weight-bearing bones located in the knee of a horse whereby the "slab" of a carpal bone divides vertically and the front part becomes separate.

Slipped - A breeding phrase, which often means spontaneous abortion.

Sloppy (Track) - A racing track, which is saturated with water; with standing water visible.

Slow (Track) - A racing track that is wet on both the surface and base.

Snaffle Bit - The most normal bit used while riding horses. It includes a bit mouthpiece with a ring on both sides and acts with direct pressure. A bridle using only a snaffle bit is often known as a "snaffle bridle", especially in the English riding regulations.

Snip - Small white hair patch on the nose or lips of a horse.

Socks - Solid white spots extending from the peak of the hoof to the ankles.

Soft (Track) - The state of the track surface with a large amount of moisture at the time a race is run.

Solid Horse - This refers to a contender that can win the race smoothly.

Sophomores - This refers to three-year-old horses. Called sophomores as the age three is the second year of racing eligibility.

Spavin - A common medical state in ponies and horses of all ages. Spavin is of two forms i.e. bone spavin and bog spavin, both of them influence the hock.

Speed Figure - A handicapping device used to allocate a numerical value to a horse's performance. It weights how quick horse races, using a compound formula to standardize race times across all tracks, distances, and surfaces.

Speedy Cut - When horses hit the inner side of the knee, or parts directly under or over it, with the foot of the reverse leg, they are said to "speedy cut".

Spiral (Fracture) - A fracture that twists around the bone.

Spit Box - A generic phrase describing a barn where horses are brought for post-race testing. Tests may comprise saliva, urine and/or blood.

Spit The Bit - This term refers to a tired horse that starts to run less aggressively, backing off on the pull a jockey usually feels on the reins from a keen horse. A generic phrase for an exhausted horse.

Splint - An illness of the horse or pony, signified by a hard, bony swelling, typically inside of a front leg, lying between the splint and cannon bone or on the splint bone itself. It perhaps "hot" which means it takes place recently and is still painful; or remains "cold," which means the splint has fully recovered and now there is no swelling or pain.

Sprint - A short race that is less than one mile.

Stakes - A race for which the owners have to pay charges to run their horse. Some stakes races are by invite, thus need no payment or charges.

Stakes Horse - A horse that runs mainly in stake races.

Stakes Race - Often the quality race on a race card at any racetrack. Refers to the stake, or entry charges, owners have to pay, which usually forms part of the amount offered to the top finishers. Not all stakes races are entitled to ranking.

Stakes-placed - When a horse finishes first, second or third in a stakes race.

Stalker - This refers to a horse that is either a pacesetter (races out in front), a stalker (in the mid) or a closer (comes from behind).

Stall Walker - Horses move around their stall continuously and fret rather than rest.

Stallion - A male horse, which has not been gelded (castrated). Stallions follow the conformation and phenotype of their breed, but within that standard, the existence of hormones such as testosterone perhaps provide stallions a thicker, "cresty" neck, along with a more muscular physique as compared to mares (female horses).

Stallion Season - A breeding right for a 'broodmare' or 'mare' to a precise stallion throughout one breeding season. You can buy stallion seasons straight from bloodstock agents, stallion owners or from the stud farm.

Stallion Share - A life span breeding right to a stallion; one mare for each season for each share.

Standing Bandages - A kind of wrap used on the lower legs of a horse that helps to prevent ‘stocking up’. This protects the horse from field injuries and protects existing injuries.

Star - A white mark on the forehead of a horse, between the eyes.

Starter - An official accountable for ensuring a good start to the race, the starter manages the loading of horses into the starting gate via a gate crew. Starter even has control of the opening of the gate. This term even refers to a horse in the starting gate when the race starts.

Starter Race - A unique race (an allowance or handicap race), where eligibility is restricted to horses that have started at or under a precise Claiming price somewhere in their career (or since a particular date).  

Starting Gate - A machine used to make sure a fair start in horse racing, also known as starting barrier or starting stalls.

State-bred - Refers to a particular state horse bred, which is eligible to compete in races limited to state-breds.

Stayer - This refers to a horse, which perhaps a good performer over a longer distance. Sometimes, this phrase may even refer to a horse, which is unable to quicken or speed up.

Steadied - When horses were taken in hand by their rider, most often due to being in close quarters.

Steeplechase - A distance horse race wherein competitors have to jump diverse fence and ditch hurdles. The word Steeplechase is derived from previous races wherein the orientation of the path was by reference to a church steeple, jumping fences and ditches and usually crossing the many intervening hurdles in the countryside.

Step Up - When a horse moves up in class to face better competition.

Steward Or Track Steward - Someone who have responsibilities of a horse race, meeting, or other public event

Stick - This refers to a rider's whip.

Sticker - Also known as a calk, which is a projection on the heels of a horseshoe, alike a cleat, on the back shoes of a horse that prevent slipping, particularly on a wet track.

Stifle - The largest joint in the horse, which has similar bones, ligaments, and soft tissues, along with a patella, menisci and cruciate ligaments. The joint's stability is significantly assisted by the powerful patella ligaments that can fix the patella over the medial condyle of the femur.

Stirrups - Metal "D"-shaped rings wherein a rider places her/his feet. They can be up or down depending on the rider's preference. Also called as irons.

Stockings - Solid white markings that expand from the top of the hoof to the knee or hock.

Stress (Fracture) - An incomplete fracture that takes place in normal bone. It is the most common cause of lameness. It takes place due to the repetitive loading, and successive failure, of the normal formation of cortical bone (the dense bone, which makes up the outer of a long bone).

Stretch - The final straight part of the racetrack to the finish.

Stretch Call - This refers to the position of horses at the eighth pole, which a pole to indicate that the end line is one-eighth of a mile away, generally of green and white striped.

Stretch Runner - This refers to a racehorse, which makes a powerful effort in the last stretch of a race.

Stretch Turn - Refers to the bend of the track into homestretch (The final direct section of the track leading to the end).

Stride - Either this term refers to the way of going or a distance covered between consecutive imprints of the same hoof. The stride is calculated from the position where one leg hits the ground to where it hits the ground yet again at any pace. When a horse jumps a single-pole, it tentatively takes off half a stride ahead of the jump and lands half a stride after the jump.

Stripe - A white marking down the middle of the horse's face, beginning under an imaginary line linking the upper portion of the eyes.

Stud - This word derived from the Old English stod that means "herd of horses, an area where horses are kept for breeding". Male horses become available for breeding to outside female horses, which is termed to be "standing at stud", or at "stud service", mentioning the comparatively high probability that they are kept at a stud farm.

Stud Book - Registry and genealogical proofs of Thoroughbreds, managed by the Jockey Club of the country in question. It is generally utilized to document the breeding of Thoroughbreds and associated foundation bloodstock.

Subscription - Charges paid by the owner to appoint a horse for a stakes race or to keep eligibility for a stakes race.

Substitute Race - The alternate race used in place of a regularly scheduled race, which does not fill or is canceled.

Suckling - This refers to a condition in which a foal in its first year of life, while it is still nursing.

Sulk - This refers to a condition when a horse decline to extend itself.

Superficial Flexor Tendon - Present in all four legs, but injuries generally affect the front legs. It is situated on the posterior of the face leg between the knee and the foot and between the hock and the foot on the back leg. Its function is to flex the pastern and carpus and to expand the elbow on the face leg and expand the hock on the back leg.

Superior Check Ligament - A fibrous band of tissue, which initiated over the knee and joins to the superficial flexor tendon. Its main function is to support this tendon.

Suspensory Ligament - A strong, wide, fibrous anatomical structure, which joins to the back of the cannon bone just under the knee — the origin of the ligament.

Swayback - Commonly referred to as "Lordosis", is when the distance of the back dips excessively in the mid of the upper line. It occurred due to weakness and laxity/stretching of the supporting ligaments along the spine of horses, usually with weakness and bulk/tone's loss in the upper line musculature.

Swipe - Slang used for a groom i.e. someone who works with racehorses.

Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter - A condition described by hiccup-like contractions of the horse’s diaphragm. It is mostly observed as a sign of dehydration and electrolyte depletion among horses performing in survival races. Also called as “thumps”

Synovial Fluid - Joints are oiled by synovial fluid, formed by specialized lining cells, called synoviocytes. The cells form hyaluronic acid and other constituents of synovial fluid that include glycosaminoglycans, which pass on viscosity to the fluid, intuitively assessed as part of the synovial fluid study.

Synovial Joint - The movable joints, which are appropriate to sustain an injury or be afflicted with the disease. The carpus (knee) is an example of a synovial joint that usually contains three joints and multiple bones. Simply, the synovial joints are the ball bearings of a horse.

Synovial Sheath - The inner lining of a tendon sheath, which helps to produce synovial fluid. It allows easy movement for the tendons as they cross joints.

Synovitis - An important part forming pain through joint effusion, swelling, and/or fibrosis that will turn on mechanoreceptors in the joint capsule, and via direct chemical stimulation of nociceptors.


Tack - The equipment used for riding a horse, which consists of the saddle and bridle with their components. Bridles, Saddles, reins, martingales, stirrups, halters, bits, breastplates, harnesses are all forms of horse tack.

Tagamet - Refers to the Cimetidine medication brand name. This anti-ulcer medication works as a histamine H2 receptor antagonist and prevents the stomach from forming acid. It is even used in the treatment of benign melanomas in horses.

Take (Takeout) - Commission subtracted from mutuel pools that are shared by the track and local and state governing authorities in the form of tax.

Taken Up - When a horse pulled up sharply by the rider as it is being in close quarters, is termed as taken up.

Tape - A starting tool used in the steeplechase, a tape consists of an elastic band extended across the racetrack, which springs back when free. Also known as a barrier.

Tattoo - A permanent (impossible to remove) mark on the inside of the top lip used to recognize the horse.

Teaser - This refers to a male horse that is used at breeding farms to find out whether a mare is ready to receive a stallion.

Teletheater - Special facility to show simulcast races.

Tendon - Bands of thick connective tissue binding muscle to bone or cartilage. These structures are intended to passively transfer strength across joints or give movement. The horse’s digital flexor tendons have developed to store energy, take up shock, and sustain weight-bearing joints.

The Jockey Club - This term used to describe a breed registry for Thoroughbred horses in the USA and Canada. It is committed to the development of Thoroughbred breeding and racing and accomplishes that mandate by serving several segments of the industry through its secondary companies and by supporting many industry initiatives.

Thermography - A useful method in the assessment of racing Thoroughbreds for injuries. Thermography had a great association between trainer-perceived problems and veterinarian diagnoses and showed raised in heat, mostly, two weeks ahead the region became a problem clinically.

Third Phalanx - The bottommost bone in the face and rear legs of horses, enclosed by the hoof capsule. Also called as the distal phalanx, P3, the coffin bone, or the pedal bone (U.S.). The coffin bone gets together the short pastern bone or second phalanx at the coffin joint.[1] The coffin bone is linked to the internal wall of the horse hoof by a formation called the laminar layer.

Thoroughbred - A horse breeds well known for racing. They are generally "hot-blooded" horses, known for their agility, speed, and spirit.

Thoroughbred Racing Associations (Tra) - Gathering of 49 American racing associations, all of which are listed in the TRA member directory (known for the formation of the Equibase statistical database and the Eclipse Award for Horse of the year).

Thoroughpin - A blemish around the hock part of the horses, (especially in a show horse) that not often causes lameness. No heat or inflammation involved, thus there is no need for treatment, however, it good to have veterinarian advice and confirm the condition.

Thumps - A medical condition, which takes place in horses where there is an irregular spasming of the diaphragm, typically caused by dehydration because of fluid loss and related abnormal electrolyte levels, particularly blood calcium. Also known as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter

Tie-back Surgery - Treatment of the roaring condition of the horses wherein the cartilage is pulled to the side and sutured, to keep it from nosy with the flow of air. Sometimes the vocal cords of some horses are even removed (ventriculocordectomy) to raise airflow and reduce noise when the horse breathes.

Tight - All set to race.

Tightener - This term either refers to a race used to have a high level of horse's fitness, which cannot be getting through morning exercises alone or refers to a leg brace.

Timber Topper - It refers to a jumper or steeplechase horse. More correctly, horses jumping above timber fences.

Toe Crack - A crack close to the front of the hoof.

Toe-in - A conformation fault wherein the front of the foot faces in and looks pigeon-toed, usually causing the leg to swing outer during locomotion (paddling).

Toe-out - A conformation fault wherein the front of the foot faces out, usually causing the leg to swing inner during locomotion (winging).

Tongue Tie - A piece of equipment used for preventing a horse from getting its tongue above the bit, which would make the horse very hard to control. It is generally a strip of cloth or rubber, passed via the mouth and tied under the chin.

Top Line - Breeding of thoroughbred on his sire's side.

Top Of The Stretch - The start of the homestretch, also known as Head of the stretch.

Top Weight - It is the highest weight allocated or carried in a horse race.

Torsion - This refers to a twist in the intestine.

Totalizator - Equipment to compute and show totals, precisely a pari-mutuel device showing the total number and amounts of bets at a racetrack.

Tote Board - Big electronic board in the infield at a racetrack where the bets are made. It displays possibilities, credible payouts, betting pools, race fractions, final times, condition of tracks, results and more.

Tout - To spy out details about a racing stable, a horse, etc. It means a tough, aggressive selling style fixed with overstated and even false claims.

Toxemia - A clinical systemic condition occurs due to extensive activation of host defense mechanisms to the presence of toxins formed by bacteria or injury to tissue cells.

Track Bias - A condition of the race track which is favorable for one type of horse over another. Like some horses prefer to run on the front end, while others prefer to stalk the pack and make a closing run if a race track is biased the other horse's ability can be flattered or compromised.

Track Condition - This refers to the state of the track field at the time a race is run. The track condition might be good; muddy; sloppy; frozen; hard; firm; soft; yielding; heavy.

Track Record/Course Record - This term either refers to the best performance of any racehorse on a particular track or the history of a particular jockey's past performance.

Trail Off - This term is used to describe that a fit horse is losing its competitive edge.

Trapped Epiglottis - When the aryepiglottic fold (a piece of tissue), is abnormal, the epiglottis gets stuck on it and causes entrapment. When a horse breathes, the air turbulence that gets trapped causes abnormal breathing sounds. Sometimes a trapped epiglottis can get unstuck on its own. When that doesn’t take place, or if the conditions recur more often, surgical correction is required to treat it.

Trial - A preliminary race planned in tandem with a subsequent, more crucial stakes race to be run a few days or weeks In Thoroughbred racing. The Derby Trial is one of its examples. Trifecta - The right choice of the first, second and third-place finishers across the wire in the specific order. Trifecta betting is famous as it allows the small bettor to gain big payoff by selecting the top three finishers.

Trifecta Box - A popular alternative for those who are scared by the proposition of a straight trifecta. The box allows bettors to choose three or more horses from the field, whom they think are going to finish in the top three positions. They will have to predict all three horses to win, place, and show to win any kind of trifecta bet.

Trip - An individual race of horses, with particular reference to the complexity (or lack of complexity) the horse had throughout the competition, e.g., whether the horse was continuously blocked or had a free run.

Triple - A parimutuel bet placed on a horse race wherein the gambler must predict which horses will finish first, second, and third, in the particular order.

Triple Crown - A collective term used for describing one of three different horse racing series such as the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, the Triple Crown of Harness Racing for Pacers and the Triple Crown of Harness Racing for Trotters.

Tubing - Inserting a nasogastric tube via a nostril into the horse's stomach for giving oral medication.

Turn Down(S) - Rear shoe, which is turned down 3/4-inch to one inch at the ends to give better traction on an off-track. It is against law in many jurisdictions.

Twitch - A device, which is used to restrain horses for different stressful situations, such as veterinary treatment. It is said that a twitch calms the horse by discharging endorphins as pressure is applied, therefore reducing stress and pain.

Tying Up (Acute Rhabdomyolysis) - Refers to muscle inflexibility and pain after a workout. It can take place sporadically or chronically. Sporadic “tying up” is because of a temporary problem in muscle cells occur due to fatigue, heat exhaustion, or electrolyte imbalance, and can take place in any breed. Chronic or recurrent “tying up” is an inborn issue with the way muscle cells use calcium and is generally found in Thoroughbreds, Arabians, and Standardbreds.


Ultrasound - The diagnostic technique, which uses ultrasonic waves to image internal parts of the horse.

Under Wraps - It is a horseracing practice where a rider slows down a horse by wrapping the reins around the hands, for avoiding tiring the horse or concealing its true racing ability.

Undercard - Called preliminary matches or preliminary card, comprises of opening bouts that take place before the headline or "main event" of horseracing.

Underlay - A horse, which is under bet that means there is less money bet on it than its actual potential warrants.

Untried - This term refers to a horse, which has not raced, been tested either for speed or a stallion, which hasn’t been bred.

Unwind - This refers to the practice of slowly withdrawing a horse from an intensive workout.


V.M.D. - Acronym for Veterinary medical doctor who practices veterinary medicine by curing disease, disorder, and injury in horses.

Valet - Someone employed by a racing organization to take care of and clean a rider’s tack and other riding equipment.

Vee (Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis) - A mosquito-borne viral infection, which can cause rigorous encephalitis in horses. This infection may cause sudden death or illustrate progressive central nervous system disorders.

Ventral - The lower part (e.g. the bottom of the hoof).

Veterinarian - Doctors who offer medical care for horses. They check up, diagnose and rarely operate on or euthanize the horses.

Video Endoscope - An instrument used to look inside the body of a horse. They are quite useful for differentiating among disease develops in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Video Endoscope provides new standards for image quality (produces images with unique clarity).

Vocal Folds - The membranes fixed to the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx. Vibration makes vocalization.


Walkover - A race wherein only single horse competes.

Washed Out - A horse, which is sweating abundantly due to nervousness.

Weanling - When the foal has been weaned from its dam, it perhaps called a "weanling". Simply it means a foal (less than one-year-old) has been separated from her/his dam.

Weigh In (Out) - Weighing the rider before and after the race to ensure the horse carried the appropriate weight. The 'weighed in' declaration means the result is authorized and all bets can be settled.

Weight For Age - A term used in Thoroughbred horse racing that denotes one of the conditions for a race. It denotes that a horse will take a set weight according to the Weight for Age Scale. This weight differs depending on the age, sex, race distance and the month of the year of the horse. Weight for age races is generally Group 1 races, which are of high quality.

Wheel - Type of exotic betting, when the wager chooses a single horse to win the race, then a collection of horses to finish in second, third and/or fourth place (based on the form of wheel bet). It gives the wager more power in picking their favorite horse, without bolstering the ticket price as much as box betting. This betting is best when you are sure which horse will win the race but unsure about the followers.

White - An extremely odd breed of horses, which are born white and stay as it is throughout their lives. White horses can have brown, blue, or hazel eyes and they are different than albino horses.

White Line - The spot (which looks whitish) between the outside hoof wall and where it joins the sole is the white line. It can be view by looking at the sole of a horse’s hoof.

Wind Gall - Joint inflammation i.e. rise in the amount of synovial fluid in the joint due to inflammation. Synovial fluid accumulation in the fetlock joint is known as "wind puff" or "wind gall."

Wind Puff - This term is generally used to describe any puffiness in the spot of the horse’s ankle. The two structures, which can be blocked with fluid in this spot are the fetlock joint capsule and the flexor tendon sheath. It’s crucial to identify both and find out the real cause before you can choose what to do about it.

Wind Sucker - The term also is known as a cribber, referring a horse clinging to objects with its teeth and sucking air into its stomach.

Winner's Circle - When the winning horse, rider, trainer, owner, and all connections gather together to celebrate their win in a race. The Winner’s Circle even plays host to unique awards ceremonies, presentations, and performances all through the meet, providing fans an up-close view of what prominence looks like.

Wire - This refers to the finish line of a race.

Wire To Wire - This term is used to refer to a horse, which leads to a race from start to finish.

Withers - The area over the shoulder, where the neck joins the back.

Wobbler Syndrome - This term refers to several probable malformations of the cervical vertebrae, which cause an unsteady (wobbly) gait and weakness in horses.

Work - This refers to the workout given to a horse by galloping a fixed distance.


Xeroradiography - An expensive medical process where an image of the horse (x-ray) is recorded on paper instead of on film. A xeroradiography gives a higher resolution picture, particularly on the edges of bone and provides better visualization of the soft tissue structures.


Yearling - A young horse any male or female, between one and two years old. Yearlings are comparable in growth to a very early adolescent and are not completely mature physically. While they perhaps in the earliest stages of sexual maturity, they are considered very young to be breeding stock.

Yielding - In Ireland, this phrase is used for "good to soft" going. The going is found out by the amount of moisture in the ground and is reviewed by an official steward on a racing day.


Zantac - The trade name for medicine ranitidine, which is used to treat or probably prevent ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, and gastrointestinal tract.

The 888sport blog, based at 888 Towers in the heart of London, employs an army of betting and tipping experts for your daily punting pleasure, as well as an irreverent, and occasionally opinionated, look at the absolute madness that is the world of sport.