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Achilles Lock or Ankle Lock -    Refers to a compression lock, which includes pressing the Achilles ligament into the ankle's back or lower leg. It is usually executed by wedging a forearm, particularly its bony part, into the Achilles ligament, while pulling the foot and the leg above the forearm helping as a fulcrum.

Amateur -    Someone who is engaged in MMA for pleasure rather than for money; Generally a nonprofessional; particularly, a fighter who is prohibited by rule to get earning from athletic activity.

American Top Team -    One of the main teams in MMA, which includes professional fighters who have contended in many main promotions, such as the UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship), PFC (PRIDE Fighting Championships), PFL  (Professional Fighters League) etc.

Americana -    In MMA, kimuras are referenced more often, while the Americana includes similar mechanics and is fundamentally the same technique. This submission is mainly a shoulder lock, usually attained when Fighter A has the full mount on Fighter B or has Fighter B in side control.

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Amy -    Short form for Amateur, who is a person involved in some MMA for pleasure instead of money. He is generally a non-skilled player.

Anaconda Choke -    An exceptionally tight choke, which every fighter must know to have a whole game.  This choke works similar to a reverse arm-triangle choke, wherein the player forearm and the opposing player's own arm forms a triangle. It cut off blood flow to the opponent's brain. This move works in a similar way an anaconda strangles its prey. Once the player locks it in, he takes a deep breath grip with full body. The opponent only choice remain to submit or go to sleep.

Ankle Lock -    Refers to a foot lock, which exists in different variations where a submission takes place to the joints in the ankle, causing a compression lock to the Achilles ligament, or sometimes even to the calf muscle.

Ankle Pick -    Linked to the single leg takedown, the player who is attacking mode quickly grabs the back of the opposing player's ankle and lifts it high off the mat, prior to driving through the challenger with their body.

Arm Bar -    One of the highly utilized joint lock submission in MMA today. Even it is perhaps the most utilized submission period. Arm Bar submission is executed by placing your leg across the chest of an opponent, with one of his arms between your thighs and with the elbow joint against your hips. From such a position, the arm of an opponent is grabbed with your arms and his forearm is positioned onto your chest. For locking the arm, you will just lean back and arch your hips all at once. This puts extreme pressure on the elbow joint and forces the tap. If the opponent does not tap out, there will be a risk of torn ligaments and tendons in the elbow joint. Sometimes it might cause broken bone if there is enough leverage, force and angle.

Arm Drag -    A simple wrestling move in which the player playing in an attacking mode controls the wrist and tricep of an opponent to pull them into a back or side control position.

Arm Throw -    The action to control the arm of an opponent and pulling the rest of their body above the attacker’s centre of gravity, for executing a powerful takedown.

Arm-Triangle Choke -    A submission holds whereby a player is choked with his or her own arm on one side and the attacker’s arm on the opposite side of the neck.

Athlete -    Refers to any competitor, fighter, or participant in MMA games.

Axe Kick -    Also called a hammer kick or stretch kick, generally performed by a straightened leg with the heel down onto an opposing player like the blade of an axe.


BJJ -  Stands for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, which is a martial art and combat game that depends on ground fighting and submission holds. In this game player shows skills to take down an opponent to the ground, getting a leading position, and using different techniques to force them into submission through joint locks or chokeholds.

Back Control -  Also called “taking the back”, which means the attacker has moved into a position wherein the back of the defender is flat against their chest, which generally opens up many potentials of attack and is considered a complex position to defend from.

Bag Gloves -     Refers to the boxing gloves, which are designed exclusively for use with a heavy bag. They are smaller and lighter and gives less protection as compared to training gloves. However, as they are lighter, a fighter can punch faster through them. Bag gloves provide you with less preparation for real sparring.

Bare-Knuckle Boxing -     It is a form of boxing in which the two boxers does not use gloves, padding or any other protective pieces of equipment on their hands, or around their knuckles while fighting. It is the original form of boxing, started in England in 1719. James Figg was the first bare-knuckle boxing champion.

Barnburner -     This term is used for describing a really exciting and good boxing match. These kinds of boxing matches go to an extreme level, in which it becomes hard to determine who is winning the match until the end of the fight.

Bellator -   A foremost mixed martial arts and kickboxing association that features many of the best fighters in the world. Under the supervision of expert fight promoter Scott Coker, Bellator is accessible to nearly one billion people globally in over 160 countries.

Below The Belt -     A punch, which strays low, below the waistband of a trunk of a boxer.

Bob And Weave - Side to side and rolling movements, which are utilized as defence to keep away from punches.

Body Slam -     When one contestant picks up the other contestant and throws them to the ground.

Body Triangle -     The act to control an opponent's body by wrapping the legs of one around the torso. The ankle protects the lock when fitting under the knee of the other leg, thus forming a triangular shape made by both legs.

Bodylock -     More commonly called a 'bear hug'. From a standing position, the arms of fighters are wrapped around the torso of their opposing player and then linked around the other side to set up a potential takedown.

Bookie -     Acronym for sportsbook. Also called oddsmaker, betting website and fight book.

Bout -     It is a competition between fighters in an MMA fight.

Boxing -     A conventionally western sport/fighting style, boxing is dependent on using fast footwork, elusive head movement, and precise punches. It is not considered as a formal martial art, offensive/defensive techniques of boxing and real-world efficiency are a precious part of a mixed martial artist's repertoire.

Boxing Gloves -   Refers to cushioned gloves, which fighters wear on their hands during boxing matches and practices.

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu -     It is a martial art and combat game founded on ground fighting and submission holds. In this game, one fighter has to take down an opponent to the ground, maintaining one's opponent, getting a dominant position and using several tactics to force them into submission through joint locks or chokeholds.

Butterfly Guard - Due to the characteristic leg position, like a butterfly stretch, this guard takes place when the guard player has both of his insteps on the inside of his thighs of the opponent. It’s a flexible open guard with many similarities to wrestling in that hand fighting, battles of head posture, and under- and over-hooking are all of major significance.


Cage -     The players are uneven against each other in an octagon ring that looks like an octagon cage.

Can Opener -     Refers to a hyper flexing neck crank, which can be applied from the guard of an opponent or a mounted position. In this, the fighter grabs the head of an opponent using the hands and forcing it towards the opponent's chest.

Catch Wrestling -   A wrestling form that includes submission holds and tends to support "catching" an opponent's limb for the submission over getting a dominant position.

Catchweight Bout -     Rather than the predefined UFC weight classes, when the two fighters who are going to compete against each other decide a weight limit, it is said to be a catchweight bout. This fight generally takes place when fighters wish to avoid excessive weight cut.

Cauliflower Ear - Refers to ear's deformity that occurs by blunt trauma or other injuries, generally happen during a boxing or wrestling match.

Chalk  - This is a betting term, which is used to describe the favourite side of the bet –  particularly a very heavy, or strong, favourite – to win that side of the bet.

Choke -     A common phrase for a grappling hold, which significantly reduces or prevents either air or blood from passing via the neck of an opponent.

Choke Out -     When a boxer is choked until he loses consciousness.

Clinch - A common position in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, MMA, and self-defence circumstances. From this position, a fighter may either throw strikes or take the opponent to the ground.

Clinch Maulers -     This is a technique to restrict the opposing player using "dirty boxing" moves to the upper body, elbows and knees. It takes place by utilizing a combination of under-hooks and the Thai Clinch.

Closed Guard -     The most essential and vital method of playing guard. The position takes place when the bottom man has both his legs completely encircling the torso of his opponent. The guard player from this position can tie up the top man (preventing strikes) and has various submissions and sweeps at his disposal.

Club Fighter -     A term used for a professional boxer who is inclined to fight locally and is not countrywide recognized or known. Club fighters are not highly respected as other professional fighters due to their mediocre or poor records or they perhaps be the fighters who are now on the decline.

Collar tie (single/double) -     A grappling clinch hold utilized to control the opponent. It is executed from the front of the opposing player by grabbing the opposing player by the collar, behind the neck, or behind the trapezius muscle.

Commission -     The percentage, which bookie takes out of betting odds for getting their cut of the action, irrespective of the results of an event.

Corner -   Refers to the outer section of the fighting ring designated for the assistant of a fighter.

Cornerman - Refers to a coach or trainer helping a fighter during the bout. The cornerman usually performs cutman duties like applying ice or adrenaline to lessen swelling and stop bleeding. The cornerman sometimes provides a towel when necessary.

Count - The number of seconds, which a referee counts aloud after a fighter has been knocked to the ground or canvas. If a fighter doesn't wake up after 10 seconds, then it considered that fighter has lost the match and the winning fighter has been awarded a winning knockout.

Counter-Punch -     A punch, thrown in response to one received by the opponent. Approximately all counter punches are delivered when the opposing player is advancing forwards.

Covering Up -   In boxing, it is known as a defensive tactic in which the fighter holds up their hands and forearms to support cover up their face and body against the punches of an opponent.

Crackhead control -     It is a technique in which both the feet of the fighter are crossed behind the opponent’s neck, doing complete strength downward leg curls.

Cross -     A cross usually known as a straight is a punch thrown with the leading hand the instant opposing player leads with his opposite hand. The blow crosses over the primary arm that is why called a cross. It is considered a power punch similar to the uppercut and hook.

Crucifix -     It is a ground grappling position, which includes being perpendicularly behind the opposing player, chest against the back, and controlling the arms of an opponent.

Cutman -     The main individual in the fighter's corner has the responsibility to manage, prevent and treat the fighter's physical damage during the bout. A cutman usually treats cuts (lacerations), nosebleeds, bruises and swelling during a fight.


D'arce Choke -  It is an arm lock, whose name is derived from fighter Joe D'arce. It is a kind of choke that looks like the Anaconda choke.

DREAM -  MMA organization endorsed by Fighting and Entertainment Group.

De La Riva Guard -  A kind of open guard with a foundation in judo, popularized by BJJ (Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu) legend Ricardo De La Riva. The De La Riva guard includes the bottom player hooking the top player's front leg from the outer with his or her leg.

Decision -  A fight or bout result, which does not end in a knockout, submission or other finish.  In such a situation scorecards of three judges are consulted to decide the winner; judges majority have to agree on a result.

Dirty Boxing -  A type of boxing or fighting, which occurs in very close proximity, generally involved short punches, uppercuts, and even elbows.

Disqualification -  It takes place after any combination of fouls or after a blatant foul at the judgment of the referee.

Disqualified Opponent -  When one of the fighters violated the rules consistently, the fight is stopped by the judge or referee and the fighter violating the rule automatically loses the fight.

Double-Leg Takedown -  A technique for defending against a takedown wherein the defender will push down the forward-moving attacker's neck and/or head into the canvas while shooting their legs backwards and pushing their own pelvis as near to the floor as possible.

Down For The Count -  When a boxer has been knocked down to the ground during a match and now not able to stand back on their feet prior to the end of the 10-second count by the referee.

Draw - The result of the MMA match which the judges decided to be evenly fought between both competitors.

Draw-No-Bet -  When betting on sports, selecting the "draw no bet" alternative means you will have your money returned if the match that you are betting on ends in a draw.

Duck Under -  A common wrestling movement executed while standing in or close to a clinch position. The idea is to get a gainful position on an opposing player by driving one's head under their elbow and moving to the side or back.


Elbow -  A blow to the head of an opponent using the elbow.

Elbow Strike -  A devastating approach striking method used by martial artists for self-defence circumstances, in some sparring matches, for breaking tactics, etc.

Elbowing -  Refers to a disallowed practice in most fighting sports. The MMA organizations disallowing it often performed so because elbowing the head raises the risk of lacerations in a fight.

Elite Xtreme Combat -  Also called EliteXC, was a USA based MMA organization owned and control by ProElite.

Enswell -  A piece of metal having a handle. It is generally kept on ice and is used for cooling the area of a bruise or cut by straight applying pressure on the injury with the metal.

Escape -  A chokehold escaped by a competitor.

Even Money (EVN) -  When two players are evenly matched, it is even odds if anyone wins.

Event -  A gathering of people for an MMA fight, generally organize for fundraising, or for social reasons.

Eye Gouge -  An illegal movement where fingers overhang in and around an eye of an opponent.


FOTN -  Refers to a bet on which player will win the Fighter of the Night Award.

FOTN Props -  Refers to prop bets on Fighter of the Night Awards (FOTN).

Favorite -  The fighter having the negative value is often considered the favourite, and if both the players have a negative value, then the one which has a higher number is the favorite.

Featherweight World Grand Prix Tournament -  A knock-out tournament, which involves the top men’s featherweights on the Bellator roster, because of end in summer 2021.

Feint -  When a player pretends to move in one way with the aim of doing something else. For instance, he perhaps pretends to punch but not make a connection, or aim toward the body with 1 hand but then immediately hit the head with his other hand instead.

Fight Camp -  An intense duration of sustained training, generally executed for 8 to 10 weeks prior to a scheduled bout.

Fight Card -  A program or circuit of all the boxing matches, which usually happen during one boxing event. A fight card generally includes one main event and the undercard.

Fight Outcome 4-Way -  Offered for fights where there is no possibility of match draw e.g. Prizefighter.

Fight Outcome 5-Way -  Pre-game fight outcome is referred to as fight outcome 5-way.

Fight Winner 2-Way -  Offered on fighting matches where the draw is not possible, like Prize Fighter.

Fight Winner 3-Way -  Selection of betting on the three most usual betting types such as win, lose or draw.

Fireman's Carry -  A technique, which allows one fighter to carry another fighter without assistance, by placing the carried fighter across the carrier's shoulder.

Fish-hooking -  The action of "hooking" a finger into the mouth or ears of the opposing player and pulling, much like a fish on a hook. This is an illegal move in all MMA contests.

Flattening Out -  When an opponent put down you on the ground by taking your back and then flattening you out. He usually jumps onto your back and snakes his feet inside your legs and around your thighs.

Flying Knee -  Refers to a jumping knee strike executed to break in the defence of an opponent.

Flying Knee Strike -  A knee hit just like a front knee, except that it is executed in stand-up fighting by jumping, and usually by moving towards the opponent. It is also called hanuman thayarn in Muay Thai, and a jumping knee.

Focus Mitts -  It is used for training martial artists. These padded training tools are utilized mainly as a moving target for punches of martial arts. Focus mitts even help martial artists practice how to keep away from a punch by ducking and weaving.

Folkstyle Wrestling -  An amateur wrestling style practised in the US in the educational system and mainly during university.

Footwork -  The term represents striking art i.e. fighter's ability to maintain balance and control distance through his moves.

Forfeit -  If a fighter declares that he will not fight prior to the match because of injury or other circumstances.

Foul -  An illegal tactic or conduct administered by a fighter during the bout.

Free Style Wrestling -  Refers to a style of martial art wrestling, which is among the two styles of wrestling that competed in the Olympic Games.

Front Kick -  A linear kick executed by lifting the knee vertically, straightening the leg and then pushing the ball of the foot at a target.

Front Mount -  A mount position wherein the top fighter is squared to the bottom fighter, with his legs straddling the opposing player.

Full Guard -  Also called closed guard, which is the usual guard position. In this guard, the legs are hooked behind the opponent's back, stopping them from standing up or moving away. The opponent has to open the legs up to improve positioning.

Full Mount -  A position fundamental to BJJ wherein a competitor gets top position and controls his opponent by sitting on top of him in the “full mount” position, or from the opponent's side in the “side mount.”


Gable Grip -  Refers to a closed palm-to-palm handgrip, whose name is derived from the name of the famous American wrestler Dan Gable. It is even called a Greco grip.

Gas in the Tank -  A euphemism for describing the remaining endurance of a fighter in a taxing fight. If a boxer is taking substantial damage and slowing down, announcers use the term to highlight the dire situation.

Gi -  In conventional BJJ training, there is a use of a heavy cotton jacket, pants and belt called gi.

Glass Jaw -  This term is used for describing a fighter who is susceptible to a simple knockout. It doesn't mean that the fighter has a feeble jaw or chin.

Go For Broke -  The only method the fighter can win the fight is to detain a submission or knock out the opposing player. The announcers will utter that they have to “go for broke” which means they have to throw all concern to the wind and land a miracle. It means everything or nothing.

Go The Distance -  When fighters fight a full bout, or remain for all rounds, without being knocked out, it is termed out as "go the distance".

Go To The Body -  When one fighter attacks the body of the opposing fighter. This tactic is used when the fighter makes an effort to wear down the stamina and will of an opponent by hitting their body and focusing less on the head.

Gogoplata -  A Jiu-Jitsu submission method carried out by the attacker using their shin to put pressure on the throat of an opponent.

Gracie Family -  The main family behind the foundation of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. Carlos Gracie along with his younger brother Hélio is usually credited with the adaptation of BJJ from its judo roots. Other family members such as Royce and Rickson Gracie have had great positive impacts on making Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu recognised in the world of MMA. They are the ones responsible for the great growth of BJJ in Brazil and later the world.

Grapevine -  It is a concept in which the legs of one player intertwine with those of an opponent for maintaining control while on the ground.

Grappling -  The common phrase used for denoting wrestling, and ground-oriented martial arts.

Greatest of All Time -  This term in short is called GOAT, which is highly used by mixed martial arts (MMA) fans. Whenever we get a winner of UFC champion, he is considered as the GOAT.

Greco-Roman Wrestling -  It is one between the two Olympic amateur wrestling styles, which ban holds below the waist and thus places stress on throws.

Ground and Pound -  It was initially conceived referred to as a precise strategy in an MMA fight: take an opposing player to the mat, pound him with strikes once he is there. Colloquially, it means any strike on the ground from a top position.

Ground game -  Also called ground fighting or groundwork, which is a hand-to-hand fight that takes place while the fighters are on the ground.

Guard -  A ground grappling position wherein one fighter has their back to the ground while trying to control the other fighter using their legs. The guard is a main part of BJJ (Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu) where it can be utilized as an offensive position.

Guillotine -  Refers to a chokehold in martial arts and wrestling, which is applied from in front of the opposing player. The choke includes using the arms to surround the neck of an opponent in a way similar to a guillotine.

Guillotine Choke -  The most general and famous submissions. This move is carried out in a standing position, but more usually from the guard. It needs a fighter who is in attacking mode grip on to the prone neck of their opponent in a front headlock position and then pressing the grip firmly until rendering a submission.


Half Guard -  Refers to a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu position generally utilized when the full guard is unavailable. If a fighter who is on the ground not able to secure complete control via full guard, they will settle for catching only one of the legs of an opponent between their own to complete half guard.

Hammer Fist -  It's a clubbing type of strike, whose action look like hitting with a hammer, hence the name. In MMA, a Hammer-fist is used after one fighter is down on the ground while the other is still up.

Hand Wraps -  The cloth strip, worn by fighter on their hands, under their gloves. It protects their hand, wrist, and knuckles from the powerful punch.

Haymaker -  Refers to a wild, fight-changing strong punch.

Head Butt -  Striking an opponent using the head. It is considered an illegal move in King of the Cage.

Head Lock -  Way of immobilizing an opponent by wrapping an arm around his head. It is also called Standing Guillotine Choke.

Head and Arm Throw -  One of the initial throws grapplers learns in wrestling and judo. It is a type of takedown in amateur wrestling, generally executed by throwing back an opposing player using his one arm and head.

Headgear -  Headwear wore by MMA fighters, which protects the head from concussive force.

Headlock -  Refers to the standing guillotine choke.

Heavyweight -  Refers to the weight division in MMA. In the heavyweight division, category fighters have a range between 206–265 lb (93.4–120.2 kg).

Heel Hook -  A grappling submission holds generally used for forcing an opponent to quit (tap-out) and end a match.

Hip Throw -  It is a grappling technique. The most powerful method to take your opponent down in an MMA match.

Hip Toss -  A popular throw utilized in amateur wrestling needs an attacker to save one of his opponent’s arms prior to sliding his own attacking arm around the waist or the opponent's back area. Afterwards, the attacker lifts the opposing player up to his back and slams them onto the canvas.

Hook / Hook Punch -  A type of punch executed by the fighter’s lead hand in a circular motion to the opponent while standing up. When this term is used in grappling, it refers to an act of restricting the movement of the opponent in the limb to get a dominant position.

Hooks -  A phrase in grappling martial arts, which usually refers to the use of cautious positioning of the feet and legs of the practitioner to control and influence the movement or position of their opponent. It is mostly used in the back control position for preventing escape.

Hooks In -  When a boxer has a rear mount and locks his feet between the legs of the mounted boxer, he is said to have his "hooks in."


Illegal techniques -  Crotch striking, eye-gouging, are some of the techniques which are considered illegal. Any player, who use this technique will be disqualified from the game. Rules are noticeably defined prior to each fight by the referee and any techniques used in conflict with those rules are considered an illegal technique.

Inside Fighter -  A fighter who likes to be near to their opponent and tries to overpower their opponent with short and powerful punches. The fighter should counterpunch well if he has to become a good inside fighter.


Jab -  A fundamental punch wherein the attacker uses their main hand to punch their challenger with quick speed.

Jitz -  A short term used for the martial art of Brazilian Jiu-jitsu.

Joint Lock -  It is achieved by a contestant positioning his or her body against the challenger in a manner that traps the challenger's arm between the competitor's knees, and using his hips, applies strain on the elbow joint by trying to hyper-extend the challenger's elbow. Also known as "cross lock".

Journeyman -  Refers to a fighter having a respectable skill-set and toughness, but cannot consider being a contender. They are likely to have a long career and will usually serve as the challenger for upcoming fighters.

Judge -  1 of 3 neutral juries selected by an Athletic Commission to score and determine the result of a fight that goes the planned distance.

Judo -  A grappling martial art invented in Japan by Kano Jigoro in the late 1800s. It is an Olympic sport, which permits groundwork and submissions, and is generally noted for its prominence on throwing techniques.

Jump Rope -  A tool utilized for skipping in which one or more person jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads.


KO -  Acronym for "Knock Out". When a player is knocked to the floor and is not able to get up unassisted prior to the referee reaches a count of ten, he is considered as KO.

KOTN -  A bet on which the player will triumph the Knockout of the Night Award.

Karate -  A style of martial arts developed from Chinese and local fighting tactics, which features knee and elbow strikes, punching, kicking, and open hand moves.

Kata Ha Jime -  Refers to a chokehold, which is performed by putting the right arm around the challenger's neck from the back, with the left arm looped under the challenger's left arm and at the back of the head. Also known as single-wing choke.

Kenpo -  A Japanese term, which is the translation of the Chinese phrase “fist law”. A submission hold, which hyperextends the leg at the knee. Boxer thrusts a pointed knee directly upwards toward the challenger.

Kesa-Gatami -  A position similar to the side mount except the top player is turned more in the direction of the bottom player, and the arm of the top player is wrapped around the head of the bottom player.

Kettleballs -  Large ball-shaped weight tools formed by cast-iron with single handles. Its weight range lies between 9 pounds to 105 pounds. It promotes interior strengthening and balance.

Keylock -  Fighter holding the opponent's forearm to twist the arm.

Kickboxing -  A stand-up fighting sport based on kicking and punching. It is a mix of karate and boxing.

Kimura -  A type of submission move like the Americana or keylock that was named after Masahiko Kimura, a Japanese Judoka. The move needs an attacker to cut off and crank a challenger’s arm behind his back, which consecutively puts great pressure on his shoulder.

Knee Strike -  When a player makes a strike with the knee. Kneeing is a prohibited practice in lots of fighting sports, particularly to the head of a downed opponent.

Knee Tap -  A freestyle/folkstyle wrestling takedown in which an attacker places one hand on the outside of their challenger's knee to stop movement, while they drive in that similar direction.

Knee-bar -  This technique includes all hold, bars, and locks, causing enough pain to an opponent and force him to submit. Many of such holds can cause serious injury if the opponent does not tap out in time. In this approach, the fighter locks the legs of the opponents to widen to the knees.

Knockdown -  When a challenger is hit and falls to the ground, he is considered as Knockdown.

Knockout (KO) -  When one of the fighters win the match by making his opponent unable to rise from the ground based on the referee's judgment. It simply means the opponent is knocked down and is not able to continue.

Krav Maga -  Refers to contact Combat. It is a hand-to-hand military fighting system.

Kung Fu -  A generic phrase, which refers to the entirety of Chinese martial arts.


Lay and Pray -  When an attacker makes an opponent down on the ground, usually lays on him and prays to win a game. It is the opposite of Ground and Pound.

Leg Kick -  A kick, which aims at the legs of an opponent, usually the thigh.

Leg Lock -  It's a finishing hold in which the fighter puts pressure on the knee, ankle, or toes of an opponent by isolating his leg or foot.

Level Change -  A movement, which takes place when a fighter shifts from a standing stance to a lower stance.

Light Heavyweight -  A weight class whose range lies between 186 pounds or 84.3 kilograms to 205 pounds or 92.9 kilograms.

Light Heavyweight World Grand Prix Tournament -  A knockout tournament, which involves the top men’s light heavyweights on the Bellator roster, beginning in April 2021

Lightweight -  An MMA Weight Class in which a contestant must fall within the 145 to 155-pound mark.

Line -  Refers to a Moneyline odds in American Odds, which generally means you are picking who will win the battle.

Live Betting -  Placing a bet on a fight, which is going on. Most people do this on phones right now.

Liver Shot -  A hook punches along with an uppercut to deliver a tender strike to the liver.


MMA -  A short form for "Mixed Martial Arts".

MMA Attire -  T-shirts, hoodies, sweats, and shorts worn inside and outside of the ring by the fighter.

MMA Gloves -  It's a hand covering worn during sparring and grappling sessions.

MMA Shin Guards -  A piece of equipment worn by the fighter in front of the shin to protect from injury.

Majority Decision -  When two judges believe that no fighter has won or lost the game and offered a tied scorecard, while the third judge declares one player a clear winner.

Majority Draw -  An end result, which is determined by the decision of two of the three judges agree that none of the fighters won, while the third judge says one fighter being the real winner on his scorecard.

Method of Victor -  A doctor stoppage because of the fighter's swollen right eye, generally considered controversial.

Middleweight -  Weight division in MMA, whose range lies within 171 to 185 lb.

Miletich Fighting System -  MMA (Mixed Martial Arts) training organization.

Mission control -  Refers to the rubber guard, a BJJ method, involving the participant breaking down the opponent into the rubber guard, while maintaining good control.

Mixed martial arts -  Hybrid combat game, which includes techniques from Muay Thai, wrestling, boxing, judo, jujitsu, karate, and other disciplines.

Moneyline -  An outright bet on the winner.  It is articulated in positive and negative values. Negative numbers point out that the fighter is supposed to win the match and positive values mean they believe he is the underdog.

Mount -  A ground position where one player is on top of his opponent with his legs around his body. The opponent remains on his back, and the challenger is facing him, driving his hips onward to maintain pressure.

Mouse -  When a fighter has a swelling on their face, forehead or head, this term is used to refer to that condition.

Mouthpiece -  A mouthguard that protects accidental impacts to the face and jaw.

Muay Thai -  A kickboxing form originating from Thailand. Unlike conventional kickboxing, it permits low kicks, elbows, and knees and is considered among the best hitting arts.

Muay Thai Clinch -  This is a clinch position taken from Muay Thai boxing where a player will grab the opponent behind the head with both hands. They usually use elbows to make distance and apply knee hits to their opponent.


NHB -  Short form for No Holds Barred, which generally describe “mixed martial arts” events.

Neck Crank -  A spinal lock on the cervical spine causes hyperextension, hyperflexion, lateral hyperflexion, hyper rotation or extension-distraction, either via bending, twisting or elongating.

Nelson Hold -  A grappling hold performed by one person from behind the opponent, usually when both of them are on the mat face down with the challenger under the aggressor. In this hold, one or both arms are utilized to encircle the arm of an opponent under the armpit and secure at the neck of an opponent.

No Contest -  The result of the bout prematurely ends because of unexpected circumstances, with no winner rendered at the end.

No Holds Barred -  Sometimes called cage fighting, a full-contact combat game based on hitting, grappling and ground fighting. It includes techniques from different combat sports and martial arts from all over the world.

North South Choke -  A choke submission attained when a player playing in attacking mode, is on top and chest-to-chest with an opposing player but positioned in a reverse north-south direction. The attacker then carries on to wrap one arm around the neck of their grounded opposing player prior to squeezing to make the submission.

North/South position -  When players remain chest-to-chest and head of one player remain at the opponent's feet, and vice versa..

Nut Hugger -  Fan smote with the practical prowess of a fighter, whether real or virtual, which they will make odd claims about a said fighter, refuse any disapproval or tear down the apparent competition to said fighter.


Octagon -  The ring has eight-side and upon which MMA contests are played.

Odds -  The information, which decides how the bets will be placed.  The better the odds, the less possibility that the players are matched evenly. Odds are of three types i.e. American, decimal and fractional odds.

Omanplata -  It is a shoulder lock derived from BJJ (Brazilian jiu-jitsu).

Open Guard -  A guard position without locking of feet.

Opened -  Refers to the money line, which first opened, and later shifts as you get nearer to the day of the fight.

Orthodox -  Refers to a conventional right-handed fighter. The right hand is the dominant and strong hand of a fighter.

Over-under position -  Also known as the "50/50" position, the most common clinch position wherein both competitors have one over-hook, and one under-hook.

Overhand Punch -  A circular backhand punch, which goes over an opposing player's arm or blocks to hit them. Its main target is the opponent's head.

Overhand Right/Left -  Strong strikes blew from the strong hand at an arched angle curving downwards.

Overhooks (single/double) -  Refers to a clinch hold used for controlling the opponent.


Pankration -  Called "All-Powerful" in Greek. The martial art was introduced at the Greek Olympics in 648 B.C. that combines elements of boxing and wrestling.

Parlay -  It is a bet. When you merge bets on various fights to combine the payouts. When we place bets on UFC fights a parlay bet will give a higher return. Its downside is that if you make one fight wrong, you lose your whole stake.

Passes -  For each incremental positional progression on the ground, a pass is scored.

Peek-A-Boo -  In this style, the fighter holds their hands high before their face. Some fighters perhaps also hold their forearms high before their face for extra protection.

Peruvian Necktie -  One of several modified front chokes, which puts strain on the neck. A standing fighter (who is in attacking mode) will shoot their lower body inwards prior to dropping down and putting their legs over the back of an opponent.

Pinch Grip Tie -  Also known as the "over-under body lock"; a fighting plan used for bull-rushing and forcing an opposing player onto their back. The arm of the fighter goes under the opposing player's arm and the other goes over the shoulder with both hands grasped together behind the back of an opponent.

Point Penalty -  A penalty that costs the player a point in the present game. The umpire might assess a point penalty for different kinds of unsportsmanlike conduct like verbal or physical abuse of an official, using obscenity, or delaying a match through the nonstop argument of a call.

Points Handicap -  Refers to a kind of over/under prop bet. For instance, we can bet on Silva 3.5 points handicap, which means when the judge's scores are combined Silva would have to win four or more rounds for winning the bet.

Position -  Basically, the guard is a position wherein one fighter on his back uses his limbs and positioning to keep the fighter on top from dealing injury with strikes or progressing to a good position such as side control, mount, or back mount.

Posture -  Refers to a stance. Fighter's better posture offers them good control and movement during a fight. It also reduces the risk of possible injury.

Pound for Pound -  Refers to a ranking, which describes who is the better fighters in their respective weight category.

Prop Bet -  Refers to the bet, which has anything to do with who wins the fight.

Pull Guard -  The improved and safer method to pull guard is placing a foot on the opponents hip and sit down, pulling the opposing player collar and sleeve. With pulling the collar grip and expanding the leg in the hip, you can repose your opponent, breaking their stance and balance in your guard.

Pulling guard -  When a fighter makes a transition directly from standing to the guard position, it is called pulling guard.

Pummel -  Refers to strike or attack in MMA.

Purse -  Refers to the money which every fighter will get after completion of the fight. The money is predefined before the fight and each fighter gets the decided amount for completing the fight.

Push Kick -  Refers to the Muay-Thai front kick's variation. In this move, the ball of the foot moves forward in more of a linear motion, at times like a stomp. Sometimes called a teep.


Queer Street -  A term, which means a fighter, has been strike so hard that he has no idea where he is.


Rabbit Punch -  Any punch, which lands to the back of the head, generally termed as the mohawk. This is usually the part behind the ears and end at the point where the neck meets the shoulders.

Rear Mount -  A leading grappling position where one fighter remains on the back of another fighter in such a manner that he has complete control over him.

Rear Naked Choke -  Refers to a chokehold applied from the back of an opponent.

Referee -  Someone who has great knowledge, experience, and training in the MMA field enforce the rules of the unarmed fight.

Reversals -  When the bottom player actively moves to the set-top position, without his opposing player getting back to his feet in between, the reversal is scored.

Reverse Mount -  A position wherein the heads of fighters are facing reverse directions.

Ring Rust -  Refers to a fighter who has not participated in a fight since a long time and perhaps a little “rusty” when getting back into the ring.

Ringside -  Refers to an area near the outside of the ring. In ringside, generally, VIP Spectators and official scorekeepers sit during events.

Round -  Every MMA consists of different rounds, which is usually five minutes in duration with a 1-minute rest period in-between rounds. The matches that have no title must not usually exceed 3 rounds, but the leading commission can award privilege for non-title 5 round bouts, as is generally done for the Main Event in the UFC.

Round Groups/Round Betting -  When anyone places a bet on the exact round the fight will end. Knock Out or Technical KnockOut, submission or disqualification on that particular round, can decide the fight. If a boxer retires in between fights the earlier Round will be settled as that was the last complete Round.

Roundhouse Kick -  A kick wherein the practitioner lifts the knee while rotating the helping foot and body in a semicircular motion, expanding the leg hitting with the lower part of the shin and generally used to hit the aim,  preferably when power breaking thick boards.

Roundhouse Punch -  A punching method where the arm comes from the side of the body, or the player's rears back from behind them, then moves their arm onward and from the side in an overstated circular motion towards their aim.

Rubber Guard -  A guard position wherein the bottom player brings his leg high up on the top player's back and hooks the bottom player's leg under the top player's arm.


SOTN -  Refers to a bet on which player will win the Submission of the Night Award.

Sambo -  Refers to a martial art, which is based in Russia. It is the combination of wrestling and Japanese Judo, utilizing both grappling and striking.

Sanda -  A modern martial art like kickboxing usually practised in China. Sometimes known as San Shou, which combine striking and throws more like Judo but with a new approach related to grappling.

Scissor Takedown -  A takedown in which one fighter places his legs on any side of a standing fighter and uses a twisting movement to trip the standing fighter with his legs.

Score oriented fighting -  Particularly used by players with strong wrestling background when facing professional grappler, or by fighters who favour stand-up fights. Generally, fighters adopting this tactic use takedowns only for scoring, permitting the adversary to stand up and continue the fight. They also want to land clear strikes and control the octagon. In order to win the fight by decision, all score oriented fighters have to have strong defensive techniques and avoid takedowns.

Sengoku -  The first Mixed Martial Art event happen in 2008 in Tokyo, Japan.

Shoot Fighting -  A term, which refers to real fighting rather than fights, which have predetermined results.

Shrimping -  A grappling method used by a mounted fighter. The fighter will look to twist to their side, pull their knee through to the chest, and have a more constructive half guard position.

Side Control -  1 of 3 primary kinds of positional control wherein the attacker presses his sternum onto the defender's sternum while both his knees are on the canvas on a similar side of the defender.

Side Mount -  A position where a player is laying on his back and his challenger is vertical, lying across his chest.

Sidekick -  MMA move, which includes kicking out from the hip to hit an opponent. The kicker strikes the opponent with the heel of their foot to avoid injury to the leg and the rest of the foot.

Single/double-leg take-down -     A wrestling move in which the arms of a fighter are wrapped around the challenger's two thighs, pulling them together and bringing the challenger down.

Singlet -  A piece of clothing or uniform wore by a fighter in MMA.

Sit-out -  A grappling method most common in folkstyle wrestling, this move takes place when a player claims their opponent's back in a sitting or standing position, only for the spot to then be reversed when the player in the disadvantageous position reaches back between their legs of foe to grasp a knee and switch position.

Slippery -  Slang phrase used for the fighters who are not easy to submit.

Slipping -  Defending technique, which takes place when the defending player moves their head side-to-side to avoid or let the punches “slip” by, their head.

Small Joint Manipulation -  Refers to bending, twisting, or pulling wrists, toes, fingers, and ankles to make joint locks in the different joints in those appendages.

Southpaw -  It is a stance where the fighter has the right hand and the right foot forward, leading with right jabs, and subsequent with a left cross right hook.

Sparring -  A training technique wherein players work on punches, footwork, and defence without truly fighting.

Sparring Gloves -  Training gloves that have different mould and part of the padding.

Spinning Back-Fist -  Refers to a deceptive technique as it can catch an opposing player off guard

Spinning Back-Kick -  A kick performed in a way like the spinning back-fist.

Split Decision -  When 2 of the3 judges score the bout for one player and one judge scores it for the other.

Sportsbook -  A place where a gambler can bet on MMA.

Sprawl -  A technique utilized to avoid a double or a single leg takedown.

Sprawl and Brawl -  A fighting action in a standing position used to be able to hit blows on one’s opponent while defending himself against being possibly grappled to the ground by holding a sprawling stance to oppose that takedown.

Stability Ball -  An elastic ball is usually known as an exercise ball. These balls are used as tools for fighters during training in MMA for improving balance.

Stalemate -  A No competition in the MMA Unified Rules. This takes place when a player is declared as the winner despite not fighting because of unexpected circumstances, which take place before the start of the bout.

Stalling To come to a standstill -  An action, which is intended to cause or causes delay, for instance hanging on ones opponent.

Stand and bang -  A term used to define a fight between strikers who are both badly looking for a knockout.

Stand-up Rule -  This is where the umpire can stand fighters up if it is supposed both are resting on the canvas or are not progressing toward a dominant position.

Standup -  A discipline, which includes striking and grappling both standing and on the ground. It is a mix of many disciplines such as Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, boxing, wrestling, Muay Thai and so on.

Straight Punch -  An offensive technique in which players wear boxing gloves or any hand wraps to defend themselves from being severely injured.

Street Fighting -  Hand-to-hand fight in public places, between two people or groups of people. Mixed Martial Arts is street fighting.

Strikeforce Fighting Championship -  A kickboxing association based in San Hose, Calif.

Striking -  The act to hit an opponent with the arm, hand, elbow, head, foot, leg, knee, etc.

Submission -  When a player taps out or verbally concedes the game because of pain or to avoid injury, being choked out, or a desire to end the game.

Submission Grappling -  A competition, which mainly focuses on clinch and ground fighting, forcing an opposing player to submit or give up.

Submission Hold -  A choke or joint manipulation, which results in opponent submission or "tap-out."

Submission Wrestling -  A competition formula, which focuses on clinch and ground fighting intending to get a submission using holds.

Submission-Seeking -  By using a takedown or throw and then applying a submission hold, the strategy to force an opponent to submit. 

Sucker Punch -  A type of punch, which catches the challenger off-guard, generally when they are not ready to defend themselves or are not aware the punch is being thrown. It is generally thrown while in close-range or from behind an opponent.

Superman -  A punch where a player fakes a front kick and then draws the kicking leg back rapidly, while at the same time throwing a punch with a similar side fist. The kick force is transferred to the punch, and the supporting foot leaves the ground.

Superman Punch -  An overhead punch wherein the fighter leaps at his opponent in an effort to avoid his defence.

Suplex -  An attached, which is admired in wrestling. Generally, a throw move includes the arching or bridging on the side or overhead as the attacker makes an effort to slam his opponent to the mat with the back of his opponents onto the floor. Also called a vertical suplex.

Sweep -  A move where a challenger who has an opponent in the guard takes away the balance of an opponent, turns him over, and ends up on top, often in the mount. Sweeps are reliant upon the ability of the sweeper to remove all of the supports of an opponent on one side, by making it unfeasible for the opponent to “base out” with a hand or the foot.

Swing for the Fences -  An expression, which indicates that participants are giving it everything they have got in the final seconds of a round or a match.


TKO -  When the judge decides during a round that a player cannot safely resume the match due to an injury or any other reason.

Triangle Choke -  It is a kind of choke-hold, which uses the legs.

Tae Kwon Do -  A martial art form originated in Korea, classified by punching and kicking method, with stress on head-height kicks, leaping spinning kicks, and quick kicking techniques.

Take Down -  The act to bring an opponent down on the ground.

Tap / Tap Out -  A method wherein a player submits to his opponent by tapping the on the mat.

Team Quest -  An organization and training camp for MMA formed by Randy Couture and Dan Henderson.

Technical Decision -  When a match is stopped early because of a cut, disqualification, or any condition and the scorecards are tallied, the technical decision takes place.

Technical Draw -  When a fight has to be stopped due to the injury and a fighter is not able to continue the fight, a technical draw takes place. It even happens, when the set number of rounds has not been completed.

Technical Knockout (TKO) -  When a referee stops a match after judging that one player can no longer fight back or defend due to a serious injury. The opponent player automatically wins the fight by technical knockout.

Teep -  Refers to an attacking move in MMA. It involves a kick with the feat sole striking the opponent's body with a force and pushing him away. Also called the push kick.

Thai Pads -  Refers to padded tools, generally used during training. They are used as an aim for fighters’ strikes and kicks.

Thai Plum -  Also called the Clincha Plum, which originates in Thai Kickboxing. This move involves continuous kicks while begin to get closer to the opponent as the attacker also progresses with his elbows. The attacker then afterwards grabs the opponent head and then brings the knee to his head.

The Octagon -  In MMA, the fight is performed in an octagon-shaped ring.

The Pit -  A professional MMA association and training camp functioning from Arroyo Grande, California;

Throw -  A grappling method, which includes off-balancing or lifting an opponent, and throwing them to the canvas.

To Go the Distance -  In this bet, you will win if you rightly predict whether the fight will last through the maximum number of rounds or end before.

Toe Hold -  A foot lock submission, which includes one hand cupping the foot and toes top, while the other hand grabs the attacking hand wrist. It uses the forearm as a fulcrum on the challenger's calf to put pressure.

Total Rounds 2-Way -  Type of Round Bet wherein the last Round fought is utilized for settlement purpose.

Tough Chin -  Refers to a tough player who can take much punishment and still keep fighting.

Triangle -  A kind of submission wherein the attacker carries out a vascular choke using their legs.

Trip -  A strategic movement where a boxer steps forward, puts his front leg behind the challenger's foot, tripping him backwards.

Turtle -  The act to ball up on elbows and knees in a grounded position for preventing opponent landing strikes to get their hooks in.

Turtle Mount -  Refers to the back mount position. When the opponent is on all fours and the top player wraps his legs around his hips for stability.

Twister -  A cross between side control and half guard, which includes facing your challenger's feet while in half guard, putting your hand on the challenger's knee and forming a gap to spin into full mount.

Two on One -     When one player grips the forearm or wrist part of the opponent with two hands.


UFC -  Short for the Ultimate Fighting Championship, MMA promotion organization, that conducts a series of fights around the world, called fight nights.

UMMAR -  Short for Unified Mixed Martial Arts Rules.

UPA -  A roll wherein a mounted competitor reverses position, ending in the guard of the other competitor.

Ultimate fighting championship (UFC) -  An American MMA promotion company in Las Vegas, Nevada, formed by Endeavor Group Holdings along with Silver Lake Partners, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and MSD Capital via Zuffa, LLC.

Unanimous Decision -  A winning norm involves striking and submission wherein all three judges agree on which fighter won the match.

Undercard -  Includes preliminary bouts, which take place prior to the headline or "main event" of a particular fight.

Underhooks -  Refers to a clinch hold utilized in grappling to control the opponent.

Undisputed Champion -  This term is used for describing the fighter who is the world champion in each boxing association, in his weight class.

Unified Rules -  The set of rules made for professional MMA competition, which remain constant across the jurisdictions of different athletic commissions and other authoritarian bodies. The rules oversee judging criteria, fouls, prohibited substances, number of rounds per bout and duration of the round, weight classes, medical needs, and fighter's attire and equipment.

Uppercut -  A power punch aimed at the chin of an opponent.

Uppercut Punch -  Refers to a bent arm punch in which the punch is thrown vertically.


Vale Tudo -  This is a Portuguese term, which means "anything goes." This phrase is made in accordance with the "no holds barred" fighting events, which started in Brazil.

Virtually Identical -  Refers to something, which is very close to true.


WVR (World Victory Road) -  An MMA organization in Japan, which was obsolete in 2011. The SRC promoted this organization right after Zuffa brought PRIDE FC.

Wall and Stall -  The name entitled by fans for holding opposing player against the cage and imposing your will on them. This phrase is objectionable for the same reason, which "lay and pray" is.

Weigh-In -  This takes place during every pre-fight ceremonial. Before every competition, each fighter weighed to ensure they are within the limits of their weight class and their contractual compulsion for the game.

Weight Class -  Refers to a measurement weight range for fighters. The weight class lower limit is equal to the upper weight limit of the class under it.

Weight Divisions -  Refers to weight classes, which defines the category of match competitors against each other based on their size.

Welterweight -  It is a division in MMA that contains different weight classes. For instance, the welterweight division of UFC has competitors within 156 to 170 lb and the ONE Championship has an upper limit of 84 kg.

Whizzer -  This move is executed in a clinch or tie-up position. Fighter generally places an arm over the opponent's arm and then laying to rest the hand in their chest or ribcage. Also called over-hook.

Wild Brawlers -  Refers to a fighting style including swinging and slamming. Generally a street fight or prison fight

World Class -  A fighter who hones more than a single discipline skill is known as a World Class MMA fighter.

Wrapping -  To prevent hands from injury while training and during MMA matches, it's important to wrap your wrists at least 3 times.

Wrestling -  An ancient sport, which includes techniques for positioning and control on the ground, similarly like MMA techniques. Throws, punches, kicks and many grappling moves are all involved in this sport.


X Guard -  Refers to the open guard variation.  In this position, the fighter attacks the leg of their standing challenger with his legs and create a mess. It makes the possibility for submissions and sweeps.

Xtreme Couture -  An MMA training association led by UFC champion "Randy Couture".


Zuffa -  t's a company that promotes mixed martial events. Stations Casinos founded this company in January 2001 in Las Vegas. The Zuffa is an Italian term, which means fight.

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