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22 meter drop out -  The way match is restarted, using a dropkick, once the defending team has touched the ball down behind their try-line or when the ball has gone out over the dead-ball line.


Acting half-back -  Also known as the dummy half, refers to the player standing behind the play-the-ball and save the ball, before passing, running or kicking the ball. This player is generally the hooker, which collects the ball instantly, passes it to a teammate, or makes an opponent run.

Advantage - The period after an infringement, wherein the non-offending team has the chance to gain sufficient territory or strategic opportunity to negate the necessity to stop the game because of the infringement. The referee will indicate an advantage with their arm out horizontally, in the direction of the non-infringing team. If no strategic or territorial advantage is earned, the referee will whistle, and give the result that had been delayed. If adequate advantage is earned, the referee will call "advantage over", and play will resume.

Advantage line - It is an imaginary line (also known as the gain line), drawn crossways the mid of the pitch when there is a break in open play, for example, a ruck, maul or scrum. Going forward across the gain line signifies a gain in territory.

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All blacks - Refers to the national rugby union team of New Zealand.

Ankle tap - A tackle, generally of the final variety that includes a dive and a slap to the ankle of the attacker. It causes his legs colliding with each other. Also called Tap Tackle.

Attack team - The team having possession of the ball and trying to score continuously.


Back - Refers to a defensive player behind a forward

Ball back -  In both types of rugby, if the ball comes into touch, then the play is started again (generally by a line-out in rugby union) with the point equal where the ball left the field of play.

Barbarian - An invitational rugby union team located in Britain, generally known as the Barbarian Football Club, or the Baa-Baas.

Behind - This term refers that both feet of players are behind the position in question.

Behind ball - A ball being passed behind one optional runner to another.

Bind - In both types of rugby, the players who are designated forwards binding together in three rows form a scrum (a method of restarting play in rugby football). The scrum after that 'engages' with the opponent team so that the players' heads are connected with those of the other side's front row. In rugby union, the referee who calls 'crouch, bind, set' vocally coordinated the start of the practice.

Bledisloe cup - A rugby union contest between Australia and New Zealand's national teams began since the 1930s. New Zealand won this trophy 47th time this year, while Australia has won 12 times.

Blind side - Also known as the Weakside. From a located piece, ruck or maul, the short side of the field.

Blitz defense - A defensive tactic, which relies on the complete defensive line moving ahead towards their marked man as one, once the ball leaves the base of a ruck or maul. Usually, the inside center leads this charge. The tactic is helpful to stop the attacking team behind the gain line and forcing interceptions and charged down kicks.

Blood bin - Also known as a blood replacement. A player having a visible bleeding injury may be replaced up to fifteen minutes (running time, not game time), at this period, a player receives first-aid treatment to prevent the flow of blood and dress the wound. The player then goes back to the pitch to resume playing.

Bomb - Generally called up and under, a high kick planned to send the ball straight up so players can get under it before it comes down. It permits the attacking team to interrupt the defensive line, take the defense's force off them, and put offensive force on their opponents. Though, the kicking team can lose possession of the ball, after which the opposing team may defense.

Bonus points - A technique of deciding table points from a rugby union game. It was executed to persuade attacking play throughout a match, to put off repetitive goal-kicking, and to reward teams for "coming close" in losing efforts.

Box kick - A high over-the-shoulder kick executed by scrum-halves in an intense attacking or defensive situations.

Breach - Any unintentional or purposeful non-compliance with the rules of the game.

Breakdown - A colloquial phrase for the short time of open play quickly after a tackle and before and during the ensuing ruck. During this period, teams compete for control of the ball, primarily with their hands and then use feet in the ruck.


Calcutta cup - The match played between England and Scotland every year during the Six Nations Championship.

Cap - When a player plays a match he/she gets a cap, however, this phrase is mostly used to note the number of official games a player has emerged for his/her national team against another national team.

Caution - A player who is intentionally or frequently infringing the laws is cautioned, and he/she gets a yellow card. He/she might be suspended for ten minutes from the ground.

Center - This refers to the players, who wear shirt numbers 12 and 13. They are separated into inside and outside the center.

Charge down - When the opposing player blocking the kick of an attacking player.

Chip kick  - Refers to a short shallow kick generally take place over the head of an onrushing defender to be rapidly retrieved or caught by the kicker or one of their supporting players.
Clearance kick - A kick of the ball into touch that eases stress on a side under serious attack.
Converter - After one side has scored a try, they are given a "conversion" kick at goal. The scoring team's kicker gets an opportunity to place-kick the ball between the goalposts and above the crossbar. If the player's kick is successful, the scoring team gets another two points.
Converting a try - When a player tries to kick a goal.
Corner post - A post conquered by a flag located at the intersection of each touchline and goal line. The post should be of non-rigid material and should not be less than 1.25m high.
Counter attack transition - The opportunity to begin an attack after an episode of defending.
Counter rucking - When the team secured the ball at a ruck, and the other team forced them off the ball to get possession, the defending team is said to have "counter-rucked."
Crash tackle/crash ball - An attacking technique where a player gets a quick pass and runs straight at the defensive line of opposition. The crash ball runner tries to commit two or more opposing players to the tackle, then try to make the ball obtainable to team-mates by passing on in the tackle or recycling the ball immediately from the ruck.

Defending team - This refers to the team whose half play is going on.

Differential penalty - A penalty, which may not be kicked for a goal by the penalty-taking team. This type of penalty is given when technical rule violations take place during the time a scrum exists. Whether in the scrum or outside, this penalty can be awarded against any player.

Double marker - The two players permitted to go up against the 'play the balls' positions.

Drag and drop - 'Drag' is running and pulling a defender out of position, 'drop' is passing the ball to a player running a 'hook line'.

Drift - A running line 'drifting' crosswise a challenger.

Drop goal - A goal scored when a player kicks the ball from the hand through the goal of the opposing team, but the ball has to touch the ground before dropped and kicked. It scores three points. The team given a free kick cannot score a dropped goal until the ball next turn out dead, or until an opposing team has played or touched it, or has a deal with the ball carrier.

Drop kick - A type of kick, which includes anyone dropping a ball and then kicking when it falls on the ground, contrary to a punt in which the dropper kicks the ball without letting it fall on the ground first.

Dropout - The way play is started again, using a dropkick, after the defensive side has touched the ball down after its try-line or when the ball has gone out over the dead-ball line.

Dummy - A feigned pass planned to mislead an opponent ready to make a tackle.

Dummy half -  The player behind the play the ball condition (also called acting half-back).

Dummy pass - An offensive trick, where the ball carrier moves as if to pass the ball to a team member, but run continuously with the ball himself; the aim is to mislead defenders into marking the would-be pass receiver, making space for the ball carrier to run into. The player is said to have "sold the dummy" when this trick works perfectly.

Dummy runner - One more offensive approach; attacker runs towards the opponent as if running onto a pass, just for the ball to be passed to other players, keep on by the ball carrier or kicked forwards. This approach draws defenders away from the ball and makes a gap for the attackers.

Dump tackle - A tackling tactic in which the tackler wraps his arms around the thighs of the player with the possession of the ball and lifts him a short distance in the air before powerfully driving him to the ground. The tackler has to go to ground with the ball carrier for the tackle to be permissible.


Eagles - This refers to the United States of America's National team.

Ellis - The person, when a student at Rugby School, recognized with inspiring the new game of rugby football in 1823.


Face ball - A ball, which is passed across the face of one optional runner to another. Also called a cutout ball, Cut out pass, or face pass. This pass perhaps used to move the ball more rapidly away from defenders who are closing in and possibly to be aiming at the player who is "cut out".

Feed - The phrase used to describe an action wherein the ball is thrown into the scrum via the scrum-half.

Field of play - The region between the goal lines and the touchlines are referred to as the field of play.

Five meter scrum - When a player commits scrum offense within five meters of either try line, or a player takes the ball over his try line and touches it down, the referee will give a scrum on the five-meter line; this is to stop all but the most vicious packs from driving the ball over the try line within the scrum.

Flanker - Also called breakaways or wing forwards, who wear shirt numbers 6 and 7. These players have all-round qualities such as speed, power, fitness, tackling and handling skills. Flankers are constantly involved in the game since they are the real ball-winners at the breakdown, particularly the number 7. The two flankers generally don't unite to the scrum in a set position. 

Fly half - Called by different names, this player generally wears shirt number 10. In New Zealand, this player refers to the first five-eighth, generally, the back-line player mostly passed the ball from the scrum-half or half-back, and thus make lots of key strategic decisions during a game. Often fly-half is also the goal kicker since the position needs good kicking skills.

Foot up - The jargon used to describe an action where a hooker puts his foot onward before the ball is moved by the scrum-half.

Forward - Towards the opponent’s dead-ball line. Players who create and challenge scrums, usually powerful and bulkier team members. These players unite together to form scrums. They will create a line-out and are occupied in almost all rucks and mauls.

Forward pass - As all rugby, match passes are directed backward, a forward pass is an illicit movement of the ball. A penalty scrum results in favor of the opponent when this situation takes place.

Foul play - The deliberate violation of the laws of the game.

Fourth official - Someone who has the responsibility to control replacements and substitutes. He has the right to substitute referee or touch judge in case of injury to either of them.

Free kick - Also known as a short-arm penalty. This penalty is generally given to a team for a technical offense committed by the opponents e.g. numbers at the lineout or time-wasting at a scrum. It is given for calling a mark. A team is not able to kick for goal and the normal twenty-meter rule applies for kicking for position from a free-kick. The referee generally raised the arm to signal the free-kick.

Front five - A common shared name for the front (props and hooker) and second row (locks) forwards. Also called Tight Five.

Frontrow - The common phrase for the prop/hooker/prop combination at the front of a scrum.

Full time - It refers to the end of the game. Also called No-side.

Fullback - The player who generally wear jersey No.15 and plays deep behind the backline. It is a dangerous attacking position in an attack hitting holes unexpectedly at pace; in defense, it's main responsibility is to cover all strategic kicks down the field by the opponent.


Garryowen -  Refers to an 'up and under' a kick invented to stay in the field of play and permit the kicking team to fight for possession of the ball. By necessity, garryowen is shorter in distance but has a higher trajectory than a usual clearance kick.

General player - In rugby, general players have good speed, strength, determination, self-discipline and good knowledge of the laws.

Goal - An area toward which rugby players try to take a ball or puck and generally through or into which it must go to score points.

Goal from mark - An earlier scoring move in rugby, which takes place when a player "marked" the ball by making a fair catch and shouting "mark". From this spot, the player could not be tackled and he/she had the choice of a free-kick. It was likely to score a goal from a place-kick or drop-kick.

Goalline - A line facing goal post and which a team tries to advance the ball or puck towards to score a goal or points.

Grand slam - Rugby Union competition, which takes place when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations antecedent) cope to beat all the others during one year's competition. Total 39 times this has been achieved, the first time by Wales in 1908, and in recent times by Wales in 2019. England won 13 Grand Slams.

Grounding the ball - Holding and touching the ball to the ground in-goal, or placing hand, arm or front of the body between waist and neck (the front torso) on top of the ball that is on the ground in-goal.

Group of death - This term describes a group with having the strongest competitors, all of which are possible winners of the tournament.

Grubber kick - A type of kick in which the ball roll and tumble across the ground. Generally, the ball has irregular bounces, which creates difficulty for the defending team to pick it up without causing a knock-on.


Haka - A cultural ritual display with a tune performed by many Southern Pacific teams as a challenge before a match.

Half time - A fifteen-minute interval, which splits the two halves of the match.

Halfback - This refers to the player who lines up behind and to one part of the quarterback in the backfield. He is usually the fastest member of the backfield and the featured running back.

Handoff - When the team owns the ball, the offense, has four downs to proceed with the ball ten yards towards the end zone of other teams. If the offense attains ten yards, it gets an extra set of four downs or in case of failure; it loses possession of the ball. The ball gets into play by a snap. All players generally stand up facing each other at or at the back of scrimmage's line. Players can then move on the ball in two ways i.e. either by running with the ball, also called rushing or one ball carrier can hand the ball to another which is called a handoff.

Handover - When a player surrenders the ball to the opponent after a team has been tackled the statutory number of consecutive times.

Heels - After play-the-ball takes place, the player can roll the ball back to another player with his foot, and play resumes again.

High tackle - A type of tackle in which the tackler grabs the ball carrier above the line of the shoulders (generally around the neck or at the line of the chin and jaw).

Highball - It is a form of kick where player kicked the ball very high into the air that gives time to chase after it and compete for possession. This tactic was popularized by the Garryowen Football Club by using it frequently in their game plan.

Home nations - The collective word for the teams of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. The first Home Nations Championship was played in 1883 between these countries.

Hook - He refers to the hooker's act when he tries to reach the ball with his foot in the scrum.

Hookers -  It refers to the player who wears the number 2 shirt. He is located in the center position of the front row of the scrum and uses his feet to 'hook' the ball back. Because of the pressure put on the body by the scrum and the necessity to use both arms to connect to other players, it is known as the most dangerous spot to play.

Hookline - This refers to a running line for receiving the ball inside the ball carrier, which is running across in front of the defense.

Hospital pass - A pass that is received by a partner a split second before he is tackled hard by one or more of the other team members, after which he is likely to have medical treatment. A useful approach to settle scores with team-mates.


In goal - The scoring region extending 6-11 meters (6.6-12 yards) from every goal line to every dead ball line, also called an in-goal area.

In possession - This term is used to describe that a player has a ball in his/her hand.

Injury time - In professional rugby matches, the referee openly stops and starts time for more long interruptions (injuries, referrals to the TV referee) so that even when the allotted 40 minutes have finished, play continues until the duration for these stoppages is added. Generally, a game has two halves of 40 minutes with injury time added on at the end of each half.

Irb - World Rugby is the world governing body of rugby union called which was formed as the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) in 1886 by Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Later, England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, France, and eighty other members joined this board. In 1998, this governing body was renamed as the International Rugby Board (IRB).


Jumper - A common phrase for a rugby jersey. Also, the phrase used for a player in a lineout, generally at the 2, 4, and 6 positions, jumping to grab or intercept the throw.


Kick tennis - Style of the game set apart by both teams frequently kicking from hand to the opposition, rather than running at the other team and risking a turnover. It is called kick tennis as the ball moves back and forth like in a tennis match. It is generally boring to watch and also called aerial ping-pong.

Kickoff - After the toss, the winning captain decides the direction his team shall play, or choose to take the kick that begins the game. Generally, a dropkick from the center-point of the halfway line begins both halves of the match.

Kicks - To hit the ball with the foot, or moving the feet and legs rapidly and violently.

Knock on - Losing, falling, or knocking the ball frontward from a player's hand, which causes the ball being given to the other team in a scrum.


Latcher/Latching On - This refers to a player who joins himself to the ballcarrier in open play to add his strength and weight to an effort to break the line and get yards. If the defense can stop the ballcarrier and hold him up, a maul generally forms. Though latching on does not automatically form a maul.

Late Tackle - A tackle carried out on a player who has already passed or kicked away the ball. Since it is prohibited to tackle a player who does not have the ball, this would be a penalty offense and if it would be harsh or wild, then it may result in yellow or red Cards. If this tackle takes place after a kick and a penalty is given, the non-offending team has the choice of taking the penalty where the ball landed.

League - Rugby's version played generally with thirteen players under different laws than Rugby Union. The two systems deviated over professionalism and until rugby union went specialized in 1995, there was inherent antagonism between the two systems.

Lifting - The act to lift the lineout jumper into the air for a comfortable catch or intercept the throw.

Line Break - This refers to an act by which the player having possession of the ball gets through the other team's defensive line without being tackled.

Line Out - In rugby union, this is a way by which play is started again after the ball has gone into touch. The opposing team gets a line-out when the ball goes out of the field of play. This is formed by both team players "lining up" inside the touchline and a player from the side, which did not keep the ball into touch throwing the ball back into play.

Line-Out Code - This refers to a coded part of the information, used to communicate intent about a line-out within one team in a match without providing information away to the opponent. The benefit in line-out comes from knowing earlier how the throw will be made.

Lock - This term signifies the players wearing shirts numbers 4 and 5. Locks are extremely tall, athletic and have a great standing jump along with excellent strength. This makes them the first targets at line-outs. They also form good ball carriers, knocking holes in the defense around the ruck and maul.

Loose Arms - An offense is done by the hooker if he/she does not set into the scrum with both arms around the prop's neck and front row onward.

Loose Balls  - During a play when the ball is not carried by a player and not being scrimmaged.

Loose Forward - This refers to the playing position in which one of several forwards who play behind or sides of the scrum and who are not bound completely into it.

Loose Head - A team given a scrum because of a mistake by the other team is awarded the loosehead and feed of that scrum. The "loosehead" denotes that the prop closest to the player who feeds the scrum (puts the ball in) will be a team member.


Mark - An action wherein a player standing inside his twenty-two-meter line takes a forward kick by an opponent and shouts "mark", entitling himself to a free kick

Maul - It is all about physical power and strength. When approx. three players from either side are facing each other, challenging the player with the ball, moving towards a goal line. However, the maul is different from the ruck as the ball remains in hand, not on the ground.

Medical Joker - When any professional rugby club signs a player as an injury replacement. This phrase is derived from the French joker médical and usually connected with France's top league.

Mismatch - Refers to a condition in a game wherein a back is one-on-one with a forward. This is useful for the attacking side, since forwards are very slow to stop backs, and backs are very small to stop forwards.

Mulligriber - A style of kick, which is directed towards the ground and gets a bounce. Often applied in a condition where either the ball has to be placed in a particular position (i.e. on the try line) or to purposely stop the opposition from being able to catch the ball on the full.

Mutual Infringement - This refers to the reason for the play's stoppage, which is not the fault of either team.


No Side - An outdated phrase used for describing the end of the match. Outdated by full time.

North - Before professionalism in rugby union, players would usually convert to rugby league — which was a rewarded sport — thus becoming not qualified to play rugby union again.

Not Straight - Call by the referee when a lineout throw or the supplying of the ball into the scrum is incorrectly towards the team in possession, stopping any competition for the ball. It is penalized by resetting the set-piece and give possession of the ball to the other team.

Number 8 - Players who wear shirts number 8. This position is known only by the shirt number of the player. Number eight should have excellent strategic awareness to coordinate scrums and ruck moves with the scrum-half.


Obstruction - Offense whereby a player intentionally impedes another team player who does not have the ball.

Offload - When a player holding the ball is overcast by the opposition, however, he/she manages to pass the ball to a team member before the complete tackle.

Off-Load Pass - When a player made a short pass before he tackled or reaches the ground. The player usually turns his/her face towards a team member and tossing the ball into the air to catch.

Offside - An imaginary line is present during rucks, scrums, lineouts, and mauls, above which any player crossing before the set-piece, commits a penalty.

On Side - This refers to the position when a player is behind the related offside line for the particular phase of play. Onside players generally take an active part in the game.

On The Full - When the ball is kicked into touch with no initial bounce inside playing field it is called the ball is kicked into touch on the full. A player receiving the ball after a kick before it bounces has caught it on the full.

Open Side - It is the opposite of the blindside (the narrow part of the pitch regarding a scrum or a breakdown in play). It is the other side, in which 'Open' means unimpeded.

Out of Play - Not in a situation to be officially or feasibly played.

Overlap - The situation in a match when there are more attacking players (usually backs) on one side of the field as compare to the defending players.

Overload - When the player's body is adjusted to the training stress when worked harder than normal or longer than normal. 


Pack - Another name was given to the forward's players, especially when they are bound for a scrum.

Pass - When a player transfers a ball to a team member by throwing it.

Penalised - To subject to a penalty, this perhaps awarded if the rules are broken in the game. The referee usually blows the whistle to stop play except the non-offending team get an advantage from what you did.

Penalty - Punishment is given for a violation of game law or rule. The referee generally blows the whistle to discontinue play unless the non-offending team has benefited from what they did.

Penalty kick - If any of the team commits a penalty violation the opposition can take the choice of a place kick at goal from where the violation occurred (or, if the offense take place when a player was in the course of kicking the ball, the non-offending team can choose to take the kick from where the ball landed which perhaps more beneficial). This is known as a penalty kick. A successful penalty kick can worth three points.

Penalty Try - This is announced when the referee thinks a team illegally prevented a try from possibly being scored. From 2018, it scores an instant seven points, with no change having to be taken.

Phase - This refers to the time duration a ball is in play between breakdowns. For instance, the primary phase would be winning the ball at the lineout and passing to a center who is tackled. The next phase would be winning the ball back from the consequent breakdown and attacking yet again.

Pills - A small circular or rounded mass of medicine or vitamins, which player swallow without chewing.

Pitch - This is called the rugby playing field or paddock. It is the playing surface, which is exclusively covered with grass. The markings and dimensions of a rugby playing pitch are defined in Section 1 of the Laws of the Game.

Place Kick - A kicking style generally used when teams have the chance to kick for points at goal. There are two situations when players can take place kick i.e. for penalties (three points) and conversions (two points).

Play Area - The area surrounded by, but not including, the touchlines and dead-ball lines.

Playing field - Also called a pitch or paddock, which is the playing area for the rugby, exclusively covered with grass. This area is bounded by, but not include, the touchlines and dead ball lines.

Pop Pass - Generally, short passes where the player "hangs" the ball in the gap for the receiver to run on to it. Often the player with the ball already drawn away from his opposite players, making space for his team-member to create the break.

Prop - Refers to a forward at both ends of the front row of a scrum.

Puma - Refers to the South African Rugby union team, which contest in the First Division of the 2012 Currie Cup. The team gets their players from Mpumalanga Province and plays at the Mbombela Stadium in Nelspruit, having before played at the Puma Stadium in Witbank.

Punters - A special player who gets the snapped ball straight from the scrimmage line and then punts (kicks) the ball to the other team to limit any field place advantage. Punters may even occasionally involve in fake punts in those same conditions when they throw or run the ball rather than punting.

Pushover Try - When a try scored by the forward pack as an entity in a scrum by pushing the other side's scrum pack backward crossways the try line while dragging the ball below them. Generally scored from a five-meter scrum, the try is often given when the number 8 or scrum-half touches the ball down later than it crosses the try line.


Red Card - This card signifies that a player has been sent off and cannot take part in the game further. During international games, a player who did an offense under Law 9 – Foul Play showed a red card. Red cards are generally given for serious offenses.

Red Zone - This term is used by coaches for describing the area of the field between the try line and around 22 meters out, wherein it is most likely a try perhaps scored or conceded.

Restart - When a player takes a kick from the center line after the opponent has scored points.

Round the Corner Kicking - A style of placekicking wherein the kicker approaches the ball from an angle and swings his kicking leg in an arc, rather than facing straight toward the goal-posts. It was initially credited to Wilf Wooler in the 1930s.

Ruck - It is formed when a player is tackled, goes to ground and frees the ball. Both the teams – with their players still on their feet – will try to get the ball while it is free on the ground by driving over the ball to make it accessible for their team-member, who usually following up behind. Players can even try to free the ball from opponents by scraping at the ball with their feet, called ‘rucking’.

Rugger - An informal phrase used for the game.

Ruggerbugger - This term in the dictionary refers to a male follower of rugby culture. A dated phrase used to describe an individual who played rugby.

RWC - Acronym for the Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition for men.


Scrum - Called scrummage, a method to restart play in rugby football. It engages players packing closely together with their heads down and trying to get possession of the ball. It is used after an accidental violation or when the ball has gone out of play. In rugby union, it involves two teams' eight forwards, with each team binding in three rows.

Scrum down - The scrum is a way to restart play after a violation of rules and is formed by eight players per side (the forwards), who ‘scrum down’ to create the scrum before the ball is placed in. It is the responsibility of the ‘hooker’ at the front to manage the ball within the scrum.

Scrum Half - This refers to the key player of the scrum. He/she generally throws the ball into the scrum, progresses to the hindmost foot of the scrum, picks the ball up, and passes out to the fly-half who then transfers the ball to the backline. Once the scrum-half picks the ball up, the opponent may fight for the ball and try to tackle whichever player is in possession.

Selector - Someone responsible to choose players for a team. Usually, this phrase is used in the context of team selection for a national, county, state or local representative side, wherein the selector, or "selection panel", take action under the right of the applicable national or local administrative body.

Set Piece - This refers to a condition when the ball is returned to open play, for instance following a stoppage, especially in a forward area of the field. Also known as, set play.

Seven - Rugby union's variant invented in Scotland and played with a total of seven players. It includes three forwards and four backs. Each half usually lasts only seven minutes, however, it can be extended. The lack of players generally results in a free-flowing game.

Shoeing - A ruck commonly forms at the breakdown over the players present in the tackle. Where players present on the ground on the other side of the ruck do not move away instantly, players on their feet perhaps tempted to "help" them move by pushing them away with their shoes. This potentially risky act is against the law and if done intentionally (or recklessly) may cause penalties and yellow or red cards.

Short Arm Penalty - Awarded for the technical offense done by the opposing team such as numbers at the line out or time-wasting at a scrum. In this penalty, a free kick is awarded, however, if they kick for touch the opposition gets the throw-in.

Sipi Tau - A Tongan war dance carried out by the Tonga national team earlier than their international matches.

Siva Tau - This refers to a Samoan war dance executed by the Samoa national team earlier than their international matches.

Six Nations - This competition takes place yearly, which involves the European, teams England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, and Wales. Each country has to play the other five once.

Spear Tackle - An unsafe tackle wherein a player is picked up by the tackler and rotated so that they are upside down. After that, the tackler drops or drives the player into the field generally head, neck or shoulder initially.

Springboks - Name given to the South African national rugby union team. It is the national team of a country governed by the South African Rugby Union.

Static Passing - Passing even as in a stationary position. 

Stellenbosch Law - This refers to a rugby union's set of experimental laws considered by World Rugby, at that time called the International Rugby Board (IRB), from 2006 through 2008. The trials finished in late 2008, with the International Rugby Board picking to accept roughly half of the proposed changes.

Strike - Trying to secure possession of the ball, generally by heeling it, in a scrum.

Super 14 - A round-robin contest in which each team plays with every other team once, with six or seven home matches and six or seven away matches.

Switch - A simple adjustment of direction: a player locating on one side of a scrum, ruck or maul gets the ball and then passes it to others on the opposite side.


Tackle - It occurs when one or more opponent players [tackler(s)] grab the player with the ball and succeed in bringing/pulling him/her to ground and holding them there. Once briefly seized, the tackler(s) must free the tackled player who must then him/herself right away free or try to pass the ball so that play can carry on.

Take - A well-performed catch of a kicked ball.

Tap kick - Usually, at the time of a penalty kick or free-kick, the attacking players make a line behind their kicker. When signaled, the players charge ahead. After that, the kicker tap-kicks the ball and passes to one of the players behind.

Tap penalty - Often taken instantly to exploit lack of organization in the opponent's retreating defense, is where a player falls the ball onto his foot and kicks it up into his arms (or puts it on the field and kicks it a little distance before taking it up again) and then takes the ball onward.

Tap Tackle - It is executed when a defending player is not able to get closer to the ball carrier, however, he can dive at the other player's feet and, with extended arm, deliver a tap or hook to the player's foot (or feet) that causes the player to stumble.

Ten - It is a variation of rugby union wherein teams include ten players, usually five forwards and five backs. Matches are very shorter, generally played as two ten-minute halves. Also called ten-a-side and Xs.

Ten Meter Law - An offside's form intended to stop injury to a defending player who tries to catch a ball, which has been kicked forward by the attacking side.

Test - The term specifically used for matches between two national teams.

Test Match - An international rugby union matches generally contested between two senior national teams with full (Test) status.

Tight Five - In a rugby union scrum, this term refers to the five non-loose forwards.

Tighthead - This refers to the position which is to the right of the hooker with his head placed between the opponent hooker and the opponent loosehead prop. The main role of a prop is to offer stability at the scrum and support the hooker to quickly win the ball.

TMO - Stands for Television match official usually called the video referee, who monitors the match in television-recorded matches.

Touch - The outside area which includes the two touch-lines. Touch-lines are generally not part of the playing area as they are part of touch. The ball, and players with the ball, is not considered to be in touch until he/she touches the floor.

Touch Down - This term generally describes grounding the ball by the defensive team in their in-goal.

Touch Judge - One of the officials whose responsibility is to monitor the touch-line in a match. He can raise a flag if the ball (or player with the ball) goes into touch. Touch judges even stand behind the posts to verify that a goal has been scored subsequent a penalty kick or conversion of a try.

Touching the Ball - Five points are given for touching the ball down in the goal area of another team.

Touch-in-Goal - Generally refers to the sides of the in-goal areas. Any of the four regions of a rugby field back of the goal lines extended and outside of the touch-in-goal lines.

Touchline - Either of the lines, which bound the long sides of the rugby playing field.

Tri Nations - The annual contest between Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa's men's national rugby team.

Truck and Trailer - A colloquial phrase for an accidental obstacle. "Truck and trailer" take place when a player with the ball leaves a maul, along with one or more of his team member. Usually, if players leave maul with one or more running before the ball carrier, denying the opponent a prospect to tackle or compete for the ball, it’s an obstacle. The player with the ball is the trailer and the obstructing players are said to be the truck.

Try - Refers to the Holy Grail of rugby and worth 5 points for the team! A player grounds the ball on or at the back of the other team's goal line.

Try Line - The goal line is generally called the "try line" though that phrase does not mention in the Laws of the Game. Straight white lines one at both the end extending across the whole width of the pitch passing straight through the goalposts, defining the boundary between the "field of play" and the "in-goal". 

Tunnel - The gap formed between the front rows in a scrum or the gap formed between the two lines of forwards in a lineout.

Turnover - When one side takes possession of the ball, mainly at the breakdown, they are said to have turned the ball over to the opponent. This can take place as defending players stealing the ball from a lonely attacker, counter rucking, a knock-on, a cut off a pass or the ball not rising from a maul (in which the referee gives the scrum feed to the opponent).

Twenty Metre Restart - It is awarded when the ball was caught on the full in the in-goal region by the defending team member.

Twenty Two Metre Drop-Out - A dropkick taking place from behind the twenty two meter line if a team touches down in its in-goal region but did not take the ball over the try line, or if the ball is kicked above the dead ball line from any other play except the kick-off. The ball merely has to cross the line, but if the ball goes straight into touch a scrum is given to the receiving team at the center-point of the twenty-two meter line.


Uncontested Scrum - A scrum wherein the team throwing-in gets possession without competition, with neither team being permitted to push from the mark.

Union - Another phrase used to describe the most popular form of rugby, which includes 15, 10, or 7 players per side. The local, regional, or national organizing committee for rugby games is also often known as a union.

Unload the Tackle - Getting off another team player after making a tackle.

Up and Under - A planned kick popped extremely high but not far, permitting the kicker and supporting players to come underneath it easily. The kick is planned to put great pressure on opponents trying to catch the ball. Also known as a Garryowen.

Upright Tackle - A tackle in rugby league is believed to be inclusive when the elbow of the arm holding the ball touches the ground, or the player is held in an upright tackle. The ball cannot be moving forward and a play-the-ball or handover must occur.

Use it or Lose it - When a maul discontinues moving onward the referee will usually shout "use it or lose it" to the team, which has the ball. This means this team must pass the ball within 5 seconds. If they are unable to do so, the referee will call a scrum and the team not having the ball at the start of the maul will be given the feed.


Video Referee - Television match official (TMO), generally known as the video referee. This person monitors the match in television recorded matches and could be called upon by the referee if he is in doubt of the result of a rugby situation.

Voluntary Tackle - This situation occurs when a player having the ball stops play without being tackled


Wallaby - Represent the Australia national rugby union team. It is the envoy national team in the sport of rugby union for the nation of Australia. The team initially played at Sydney in 1899, winning their initial test match against the opponent British Isles team.

Weak Side - Also known as the Blindside, from a set-piece, ruck or maul, the short side of the field. 

Webb Ellis Trophy - This trophy is named in the remembrance of William Webb Ellis, who is generally credited as the inventor of rugby football. It is awarded to the winner of the men's Rugby World Cup, the leading contest in the international rugby union of men.

Wheel - A scrum, which has turned through 90 degrees or more is said to have "wheeled". The referee usually calls the scrum to be reset, with the ball being rotated over if the attacking team is believed to have been intentionally or frequently wheeling the scrum.

William Webb - An English Anglican clergyman who is believed to be an inventor of rugby football in 1823.  According to history, William Webb Ellis picked up the ball and ran with it during a school football game in 1823, therefore formed the 'rugby' style of play. 

Wings - Generally refers to the quickest players in the team and are indefinable runners who use their speed to avoid tackles.


XY - Refers to the first fifteen selected players of a rugby club or team. A team might even use XV in their name, pronounced as fifteen.


Yellowcard - World Rugby Law defines that any player who commends an offense under Law 9 – Foul Play showed a yellow card and suspended from the match for ten minutes; in this period the player cannot be replaced too. Receiving this card is generally called being sent to the "sin bin".


Zero Tackle - It is a rule which describes if the defensive team 'knocks on' or touches the ball when it is in the air, and the ball is quickly received by the attacking team, the referee might choose to restart the tackle count in place of awarding a scrum; called the zero tackle rule as the subsequent tackle is counted as 'tackle zero' and not the general 'tackle one'.

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