0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


2 Set - This refers to a high set, which is straight over the setter. Generally planned for the middle hitter, as they are usually close to the setting position.

3 Set - A set intended for the outside or middle hitter. Generally, low and quick, farther outside than a regular middle set.

4-2 -  A kind of rotation that includes four hitters and two setters.

4 Set - A set intended for the outside hitter and lower than normal. Also known as a shoot set.

5-1 - A kind of rotation that includes five hitters and one setter.

5 Set - A set intended for the right front hitter, utilizing a back-set. Also known as a red set.

6-2 - A kind of rotation that includes six hitters and two setters.

6 Set - A usual set outside near the antenna, which the setter is facing.


Absorption - The passer contacted the ball and other players received it with particular parts of the body or with the entire body. It is generally a cushioning effect in which the momentum of the ball’s rebound sufficient to carry it onward or up with little if any backswing or follow through.

Ace - A service, which cannot be passed by the other team, generally hitting the floor in bounds without being touched. It results in an immediate point for the serving team.

Antenna - This refers to the vertical rods, which is mounted over the sidelines and close to the ends of the net, and generally used for indoor courts.

Approach - When a player moves quickly toward the net or ball to make a play.

Assist - When a player set or pass the ball to a team member who attacks the ball for a kill.

Attack - This refers to any attempt taken by any team against the opposition to score a point.

Attack Error - An attack failed in any of the following ways such as ball lands out of bounds; ball goes into the net; attacker breach center line or net rules or attacker illicitly contacts the ball.

Attack Line - Also called the 10-foot line, which is generally 3 meters from the parallel to the net.  This line divides the front-row players from the back-row players. A back-row player cannot officially attack the ball over the net except he takes off from at the back of this line.

Attack Range - A hitter’s “window” wherein he/she remain competent to attack a ball in control.

Attack The Block - An aggressive attempt by receiving players to block a spiked ball before it crosses the net.


Back At One - A ball set comparatively low (or fast) to the middle hitter or the right-side hitter, straight following the setter.

Back Row Attack -  A violation takes place when a backcourt player jumps and his foot touches any part of the 3-meter line (or its extension) and he attacks a ball over the height of the net. The violation even takes place when a libero handsets before the 3-meter line and someone jumps to attack it.

Back Two - A ball set comparatively elevated and to the middle / the right-side hitter, straight following the setter.

Back-row Block - Any violation takes place when a back-row player contacts an attacked ball from the opposition above the height of the net.

Back-row Player - Refers to the player's position Left Back (LB); Middle Back (MB); Right Back (RB) – according to the serving order. (Serving order spots 5, 6 and 1.)

Backcourt - It is the court's area behind the attack line in front of the end line and between the sidelines.

Backline - This refers to the lines, which are two inches in width and run parallel to the net. Backlines define the ends of the court.

Backset - This refers to the lines, which are two inches in width and run parallel to the net. Backlines define the ends of the court.

Backset - A kind of overhand pass, which is generally used to set the ball in a backward direction.

Back Row/Court - Space from the back-line of the court (baseline or end-line) to attack line. There are three players whose court positions remain in this area (positions 1, 6, and 5)

Ball Handling - This refers to the execution of every passing fundamental.

Ball Handling Error - When a player made an illegal contact on the ball, generally by double hits, throws, and lifts.

Baseline - The backline of the court, also known as the end line. It is often 30 feet (9 meters) from the net and parallel to the net on either side of the court.

Beach Dig - Digging or getting the ball with an open hand. A dig carried out using both hands and fingers to bound the ball, grasp and slightly lift the ball. It is generally permitted when defending against a firm strike on the beach.

Block - A play carried out by the defense at the net to defend the attack of an opponent. It can be carried out single or with multiple players.

Block Assist - A statistical phrase used for giving credit to a player/s, who can form a double or triple block by assisting a team member who blocked an opponent for a point during a rally. Each player trying to block at the region of contact receives a block assist, regardless of if just one player truly blocks the ball.

Bet Calculator

Block Error - This term refers to an unsuccessful block. When a player tries to block an attack, the block error is charged for a net or centerline violation, for reaching over the net or for back-row player blocking violation.

Bump - An initial pass with the forearms used to set an attack.


Bump Pass - This is a way of passing or setting the ball up to a team member by joining the forearms mutually, widening arms before you, and bumping the ball off them in an underhand method.


Campfire - This phrase is used to depict when a ball is returned above the net and it falls in between one or more players, without any of them going after the ball.

Carry - A fault wherein the player held the ball for too long. Sometimes called a catch, lift, or throw. The referee has the responsibility to determine if a player has violated a ball-handling rule.

Center Line - Refers to the line, which runs the width of the court under the net. The line generally remains 30 ft long and allocates the floor boundary between the two teams.

Centerline Violation - When a player crosses the centerline and enters the opponent's half.

Change Of Pace - A spike executed with significantly less force than a normal spike, generally very carefully placed. It is used to get some tactical advantage.

Chester  - This refers to a spike or serve, which hits straight into an opponent’s chest.
Closing The Block - When one player connects with another player to create a unified block. This term generally describes closing the gap between the two players and form a unified block.
Collapse - A defensive approach, taken from side to side.  Player widen into a side lunge, pass the ball and due to the momentum, they hit the floor on the side of their thigh/butt.
Committ Blocking - A blocking strategy in which a player who is blocking the ball keeps his focus on one attacker. Most often used by middle blockers.
Court - The playing area having dimension 30 by 60 feet, divided by a centerline into two halves of 30 by 30 feet.
Court Coverage - Assigned responsibility of each player on offense or defense when the ball is in play.
Cover - Refers to the hitter preparing to retrieve rebounds from the opposing blockers with his team members.
Cover The Hitter - When the attacking team players cluster near a spiker to recover rebounds from the opposing blockers.

Cross - A play wherein the middle hitter jumps for a one, and the weak-side hitter, when moved to the middle of the court, come close for a two at the same location.

Cross Court Shot - When one player attacks directed at an angle from one end of the offensive team's side of the net to the opposite sideline of the court of the defensive team. Simply it means a ball strike into the opponent’s court in a diagonal direction. Also known as an angle hit.

Crossing The Centerline - An illegal position of the feet to center lines. The player perhaps crosses the centerline so long since a part of the body remains in contact with the center line and the act does not hinder the play or cause a wellbeing concern (caution by the referee).

Cushion - It's an effect in which the momentum of the ball’s rebound enough to take it forward or upward with little if any backswing or follow through.

Cut - An attacking hit took at an extreme angle.

Cut Shot - A crafty shot that begins as a normal swing but strikes the hitter's hand toward their pinky, letting the ball go at a sharp angle across the net. Simply refers to a spike carried out at a sharp angle across the net.    


Decoy - An offensive play utilizes simply to divert the opponent with no intent of being set. Intended to interrupt the ability of an opponent to set the block on the actual attacker.

Deep - When the player sends the ball away from the net, generally in the baseline's direction of the opponent’s court.

Deep Dish - Also called Beach Dig, which refers to an open hand receive of the ball. It is an illegal set in a game where the player holds the set very long and set the ball from below his shoulders.

Deep Set - A set strike away from the net in an attempt to throw off blockers. It is intended to limit the effect of an opponent block.

Defense - The action carried out by a team when the opponent has complete control over the ball. It is commonly a team tactic.

Defensive Specialist - Refers to a player who is used to receive serve or strictly defend. This player plays only in the back row. Generally, this player replaces a less skilled defensive player since they enter the back row of the rotation. Sometimes they can turn to the frontcourt and play as a front-row player if needed by the team.

Dig - When a player stops the ball from hitting the ground on their side of the net when it is sharply struck by an opponent.

Dive - A player landing on the floor to save the ball with their arms before it hits the floor. It is also known as a “sprawl”.

Dive And Catch - When the defensive player dives forward, pickup a difficult shot and then lands on his chest and abdomen behind being cushioned by his arms and hands.

Dive And Slide -  When the defensive player dives forward, pickup a difficult shot and then touch the floor with his hands and arms, and by their impetus slides frontward on his chest and abdomen.

Double Block - When two defensive players while approaching the net, often jump in unison to deflect or block an attack tried by the hitter back onto the opponent’s side of the net.

Double Contact - This refers to touching the ball twice in a row, or the ball touches two parts of the player's body in succession.

Double Hit - This refers to two or more strikes in a row by the same player.

Double Quick - Offensive playing technique in which a player assigned to isolate the right front spiker. Two hitters generally approaching the setter in the middle of the court.

Doubles - A game that has two players on each side generally played on a sand court.

Down-the-line-shot - A spike, which is strike parallel to, and near to, one of the sidelines so that it never crosses the centerline.

Downball - When a player hits a ball so softly that the defense gets a great chance to recover by digging rather than blocking. "Down" is generally a call for the blockers to settle down and not jump.

Drifting - This refers to a general error by blockers. There is too much lateral body movement, instead of the desired vertical jump.

Dump - When a player, usually the setter, strikes the ball above the net on the second contact. This is usually a surprise play when the setter seems to be setting the ball but then immediately hits it above the net and into an open spot.


End Line - The back boundary of the court, approx 30 feet (9 meters) from the net, and parallel to the net on both sides of the court.  Also called the baseline.

Extension - A defensive move in which the player extends to their left or right.

Extension Roll - This refers to a controlled dive to pass a ball that seems to be out of reach. End with a roll, help a player to get back to their feet.


Face Pass - A pass made with both hands open, generally controlled by the fingers and thumbs, played just over the forehead. Also called Overhand pass.

Facial - When a player (defending the ball) gets hit on the face with the ball from an attack either by the opposing team or by a deflection off the block. 

Fish - This refers to a player who is hung up in the net or made illegal contact with the net.

Five One - A volleyball team formation in which there is one main setter and five attack players. High-level teams generally played with this formation. 

Five Set - Also known as, "red set"; the back row setting a play to the right front player.

Flare - A planned move from the inside out intended to forge the opponent. A team member runs a misleading play, and then the attacker rapidly moves from the inside to attack the outside.

Floater - A ball strike in such a way that there is little or no spin imparted to it. Such a strike causes the ball to suddenly weave or float in the air.

Floor Positions - Beginning from the initial server, they are Right Back (RB-1), Middle Back (MB-2), Left Back (LB-3), Left Front (LF-4), Middle Front (MF-5), Right Front (RF-6). Serving order must be (RB-1), (RF-2), (MF-3), (LF-4), (LB 5), (MB-6).

Follow - The phrase used in indication to a blocker following a similar attacker on their side of the net, in place of blocking one position.

Foot Fault - This refers to the failure of the server. To keep both feet at the back of the baseline until the ball is hit or to keep at least one foot on the ground while striking the ball.

Forearm Pass - An essential ball-handling technique wherein players contact the ball under the waist by using their forearms.

Foul - Any volleyball game rule violation is called foul.

Four Hits - When a player of any team contacts the volleyball four times before giving it to another team.

Four Set - It refers to a set, which is one foot from the sideline and at a distance of one to two feet from above the net for the outside hitter. Also known as "shoot set".

Four-two Offense - An offensive system in volleyball which involve four hitters and two setters. In this system, the two setters often play opposite to one another in the rotation and each set when they are front row players. The 4-2 gains the benefit of always having the setter on the front row.

Fourtwo - A formation used in volleyball that includes four attackers and two setters. Generally used for starting teams.

Freeballing -  A ball, which will be sent over the net via pass instead of attack. A defensive player gets an alert to drop back into passing positions since no spike is coming.

Freezone - This refers to an area, located outside the court's boundaries. The free zone is approximately six feet wide and the referee permits each team to utilize this area to keep the ball in play.

Friendly Fire - One of the funny slang used in volleyball that depicts what happens when a ball served by one player hits their own team member's head. This is considered as a foul and a point is granted to the opposing team.

Front -  This refers to the position of a player who is blocking the attacker.

Front-row - This refers to the court's position of three players near the net.

Front Slide - When the player quickly slides into position in front of the setter.

Frontcourt -  This is the area between net and attack lines wherein front-row players are placed.


Game Plan -  Predetermined strategies, generally set by the coaching staff, on how to attack or stop an opponent and try to score maximum.

Good Ball - A well-placed ball for the attacker to hit and score.


Half-speed Shot - This refers to a tip (dink), which is not recorded as a spike.

Heat - This refers to a very difficult spike.

Held Ball - When a player tries to set the ball and the player catches it, and then try to throw the ball back into the air, it is then referred to as a held ball.

Hit - Striking the ball with the palm. Called a spike or an attack.

Hit Miss - This refers to a failed spike or an attack.

Hit Percentage - Spike ratio calculated via total kills minus total attack failures divided by the number of tries.

Hitter - A spiker or attacker who hits the ball.

Husband And Wife Playing - Slang word that refers to a ball drops between two players who are not able to communicate.

Hybrid Serve - Refers to jump serves from a top-two hand float toss. It appears to be a jump floater so you can bait the player into a more shallow/mobile base than a deeper/stable base.


In Back Of The Block - This term is described in two ways:

  1. A defensive region of the backcourt, generally behind the block or straight screened out by the block. Strategically this is a region that the defensive player does not suppose to dig a hard-driven spike.
  2. The defensive region of the backcourt between those regions selected as OUTSIDE THE BLOCK and INSIDE THE BLOCK.

In Bound - This term either refers to a ball landing within or touching the court’s line or ball passing above the net inside of the antennae.

Inside Shooting - A play wherein the middle hitter runs one ball about middle in between the center and outside.

Inside The Block - This term is described in three ways:

  1. Attacking play that causes the ball to travel between the block and net. 
  2. A cross-court hit escaping the block. 
  3. The defensive backcourt’s area i.e. crosscourt from the spiker and lies between the regions screened out by the block and the distant sideline.

International Volleyball Federation - Called FIVB, authorized association to conduct and manage all international volleyball (both beach and indoor) rules and competitions. It was founded in 1947 and have headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Isolation Play - A game tactic intended to isolate a precise attacker against a particular defensive player. Generally to use a weakness in the defender.


Jedi Defense - Slang used for an unpredictable powerful pass pulled off by a static defender.

Jungle Ball - It refers to the crowd of people who don’t know much about playing volleyball.

Jousting - When the volleyball is falling straight on top of the net, two opposite players jump and push against the ball, attempting to push it onto the other's side.

Jump Serve - A kind of service in which the server has to toss the ball high into the air, then run and jump to strike down on the ball.

Jump Serve – Float - The server approaching in similar footwork like attacking and contacts the middle of the ball so it travels with little to no spin.

Jump Serve – Topspin - The server begins this service with an elevated toss as if setting himself. The server takes an attacking approach to make the service, a hard spike.

Jump Server - This refers to a player who made a jump spike.

Jump Set - A set executed by a player who has jumped off of the floor.


Key - A “tell, which an opposing team gives unintentionally, allowing the defense to expect their next play or move.

Key Player - Refers to the best player of the team, who can observe opposing team playing patterns or habits easily.

Kill - To hit the ball with the foot, or moving the feet and legs rapidly and violently.

Kong - Refers to a one-handed block. This name is derived from the infamous King Kong's moves.


Lateral Set - A set carried out wherein the shoulders of setter are approximately parallel to the ball’s traveling direction. Generally, the shoulders of setters are approximately perpendicular to the route of the ball.

Lets Service - A serve touching the net and ongoing into play. Under previous rule systems, let serves were a failure of the rally and service was offered to the receiving team. These days the served ball perhaps touches the net on its way over and the rally carry on.

Libero - An Italian phrase meaning “free,” generally refers to a defensive player who wears a contrasting colored jersey, come on and off the court for any back-row player.  His main duties include getting serve and playing defense.  Rules limit him from an overhead setting before the 3-meter line and attacking a ball over the plane of the net.  Under certain rule systems, Libero may serve.

Lift - A foul wherein the ball comes to rest on some part of the body.

Line - The marks, generally 2 inches (5cm) wide, serve as boundaries of a court.

Line Serve - A direct serve that lands on the opponent's left sideline.

Lineman / Lineswoman - The official who remains at the end of the court and respond to indicate whether a ball is inbounds or out of bounds.

Loading - Positioning the blockers with the intention that the most effective blocker confronts the opponent’s most effective attacker.

Lollipop - Refer to a gentle serve that often causes getting "licked".


Match - A sequence of games, which determines the result.  Usually, volleyball games are two out of three or three out of five.

Match-up Blocking - A blocking system where teams control the positions of their front row players to get an advantage on the other team’s attackers. For instance: A left-side attacker perhaps blocking in the center, a middle blocker on the right, and the setter on the left.

Middle - This refers to the middle-front or middle-back player.

Middle Back - A defensive method in which the middle back player is used to cover deep spikes.

Middle Blocker - Refers to a player, playing in the front row middle and has the responsibility to block close-net spikes.

Middle Up - Refers to a player, playing in the back row middle and has the responsibility to cover dinks and short shots.

Middle-back Deep Defense - A defensive arrangement that includes two blockers at the net and four men in a cup pattern near the court perimeter. The middle back is responsible for all the deep shots as he is at the end-line.

Middle-back-up Defense - A defensive arrangement that includes two blockers at the net, one player (the middle back) right behind the block and the three leftover players near the court perimeter. This player is responsible for all dinks.

Mintonette - This term denotes the original name of the volleyball game, created by William Morgan.

Monument Valley - This refers to a gap between two, tall, non-defending players.

Multiple Offense - An offensive method wherein all three frontcourt players are probable to attack and a back-row player is used as the setter. A three spiker offense wherein the ball is set by a back-row player.


Net - The equipment made of cord meshes 4 inches square, 36 inches wide and 32 feet long, having spaces between them and that split the court into two halves. It works as a barrier that must be hit over to attain the aim of volleyball.  Over the net, there is 2 inches wide canvas band. It’s height remain 8 feet for men and 7 feet 4-1/4” inches for women.

Net Violation - When any part of the player’s body or uniform illegally contacts the net, it is considered as net violation.


Off-speed Hit - A ball, which loses power quickly as hit with less than usual force.

Off-speed Shots - This refers to an intentional slow attack by a player. In this shot, the player uses spin, but less force on the ball while spiking.

Offense - The tactics and strategies used by the team to control the ball. For example reception of the serve (bump or forearm pass), setting and attacking (spiking) the ball. The serve is considered as an offensive action.

Offensive Plays - Nearly all teams work on coordinate team patterns or play, however, here are few common examples used by teams executing multiple offenses such as OPTION FOUR, which is planned to isolate the left front spiker, DOUBLE QUICK, which is planned to isolate the right front spiker and X PLAY, which is planned to isolate the right front spiker striking from the middle front position.

Offensive System - This term is generally described in terms of the number of spikers and setters used. Generally, the first number denotes the number of spikers and the second denotes the number of setters. For instance, 4-2, 3-3, 6-6, 5-1, 6-0 and 6-3.

Offside Block - The net player who is on the other end of the opponent attack.

Opposite - A player playing opposite the setter in the rotation. In some approaches, this player is even a setter. In other approaches, this player is known as the right-side.

Opposite Hitter - This refers to a player who is opposite the setter and responsible to attack from the right sight of the court.  Considered as the most versatile position on the court.  This position can be rotational, sometimes become the main passer, passing from the middle of the court in every rotation, main attacker, or the skill to be hidden on the court.

Option - This refers to the action of attacking the second touch.

Outside Hitter - Refers to the attacker, who is playing in the left front or right front positions. Most commonly this player plays from the left front position.

Overhand Pass - Any pass executed with hands over the head, at the same time contacting the ball with fingers spread. Setters commonly employ the overhand pass since it is more reliable.

Overhand Serve - Any serve strike with the hand over the shoulder.

Overlap - A foul acquired when a team is out of the rotation after the service has been strike.

Overpass - A ball, which is passed over the net. Generally, the term describes an errant initial pass either on serve receive or defense, which straight away proceeds to the opponent side of the net.

Overset - Similar to the overpass, it is a set that goes above the net to the opponent rather than to an attacker. It can often cause a joust.


Paint Brush - A player tries to hit the ball but instead brushes it.

Pancakes - A defensive mover in which a player dives to the floor with an extended arm and flat palm sliding along the floor. The ball is supposed to rebound the back of the flattened hand of the player keeping it “alive”.

Party Ball - When the volleyball is passed across the net before the attack line so the front-row attacker can quickly strike the ball on the initial contact.

Pass - A controlled volleyball on initial contact from serve or in defense supposed to be directed to another player on the same team, for set or attack.

Penetration - This term either refers to the backcourt player’s movement into the frontcourt for the aim of setting. This is carried out since the team is trying to execute multiple offenses or the player reaching above the net on the block.

Pepper - Refers to a drill wherein two players pass, set, and volley the ball.

Pipe - When a  back-row player attack from the center of the court.

Play - A set, prearranged attack. It can be an intentional fake attack to distract the opponent.

Play Over - The act of bringing the ball into play again without giving a point or side-out.

Point - A point is given to the serving team only when the opposing team commits a foul. The opposing team cannot gain a point.

Point Of Service - A service, which results in a point (an ace by NCAA standards) since the service can’t be return because of a bad pass by the receiver.

Point Run - One extra point scored while keeping the same server on the baseline.

Power Alley - This refers to a cross-court hit, which travels to the extreme corner of the opponent.

Power Volleyball - This volleyball level is different from recreational volleyball as compare to the organization necessary for the extremely refined application of team tactics and individual skills. Power volleyball requires a prompt and alert, very well-coordinated athlete, with higher energy to master its difficult skills and playing situations.

Powertip - When the attacker control or push the ball powerfully.

Prince - A flippant player who is known to hits the ball with great power instead of any strategy. Also known as "whale" or "Princess of Whales".

Pursuit - Playing a ball in a way that it has traveled outside of the antennae onto the other side of the net and played back to the correct side.


Quick - Refers to a low, fast, inside set.

Quickset - A very low vertical set used to beat the block of an opponent. This can be set at any place on the net.


Rainbow - A shot mainly on the beach hit above the defender’s head to the far corner and lands cleanly. Also called a Jumbo Shrimp because of the arc or shape of the shot.

Rally scoring - In a rally, scoring points are gained on each dead ball whether the team is serving or receiving. In 1999, FIVB (international volleyball federation) introduced this rule in volleyball.

Range Of Motion - The playing area wherein the player has the highest possibility of making a successful play.

Reader's Block - A blocking tactic advising all front row players to “read” the passer to find out where the attack will initiate from.

Ready Position - The flexed, yet at ease, stance a player takes before moving to contact the ball. In a ready position, the player’s knees are bent, the hands are out at waist level and just outside the knees, and the weight is balanced onward.

Reception Error - A reception error takes place when a player is not able to pass the ball properly on serve, leading the serving team to win the point.

Red Card - Red Card is shown by the official to a player or coach for flagrant misconduct that results in a point/side out to the opponent. It causes an automatic expulsion and a point/side out for the opposing team.

Red Defense - A defensive arrangement showing two blockers at the net, one player (the middle back) right at the back of the block and the last three players near the court perimeter. He is the one who is responsible for all dinks.

Redwood - This refers to a blocker who is tall, but a bit uncoordinated.

Referee - The official who is responsible for presiding over the match from a neutral position and taking prompt decisions to enforce the rules of the sport. A volleyball game is presided over by a first referee, who looks game from a stand, giving a clear view over the net and look down into the court. The second referee remains at the floor level and assists the first referee.

Roll - A defensive move often utilizes to boost the sideward range of motion.- FULL (COMPLETE) ROLL in which the defensive player lunges sideward, picks up a complex shot then rolls (360 degrees) over the back and shoulder to again gets a defensive position. - HALF-ROLL in which a player falls to his back changes directions and stands on his feet again.

Roof - Blocking a spike, generally straight down for a point.

Rotation - The clockwise movement of players on the court after a side-out has taken place and the opponents have lost the serve.

Roundhouse - The action used for hitting the ball on a serve or spike. The ball gets stuck with the arm that moves usually up through a large arc of about 180 degrees.


Save - When the player recovers the ball that could have hit the floor, moving well beyond his usual ball covering range.

Score - This refers to the points attain in a game. Games resume until a team reached 25 points and minimum have a two-point lead to win the set. Most games have five sets; therefore to win a match team must have won three out of five sets.

Scorer - The official who is in charge of recording the accurate score of the game.

Screening - It is a rule in which the 2, 3 and 4 position players who make a starting action (a serve) interfere with their bodies or their hands and stop the opponent's receivers to have a good view on the server.

Seam - The gap between the two players. Generally, the seam refers to the space between blockers.

Serve - The basic approach to put the ball into play. A serve aims to send the ball above the net and into the opponent’s court.

Server - This term is used to describe the player who sets the ball in play.

Service Ace - A serve, which bounces off the floor or is struck by the passer with the intention that a second hit cannot be possible.

Service Area - An area, which is equal in width to the baseline and widens substantially deep behind the end line. Minimum it should be six feet in depth. Any way that the playing area does not offer gaps for such depth, this area must broaden into the court to whatever distance is required to offer the minimum six feet.

Service Error - Fail or unsuccessful serve that occurs due to the ball strikes the net or fails to clear the net or the ball lands out of bounds, or the server has a foot fault.

Service Winner - The serving team scores a point straight away after serving the ball.

Serving Specialist - A substituted player who has a great skill to serve.  When the receiving team gets sides out, the serving specialist is quickly removed from the match.

Set Attack - When a setter tries to earn a point instead of setting the ball to a setter. Also known as a shoot set.

Set The Block - In most defensive systems, a specific player is assigned to particular the block on any particular offensive player. The player assigned to place the block has the assignment to SET the BLOCK.

Set Variations - Examples of set variations are:

  1. A low set, generally in the middle of the net (zone #5), that travels almost vertically and is rapidly striker by the spiker who is already in the air. It is striking just over the net as it leaves the hands of the setter. Preferably, it is set in such a way that a spiker attacks the ball while mounting.
  2. A medium-low set that travels almost vertically from the hands of the setter to a height 2 or 3 feet over the net. 
  3. A medium set that travels 2-4 feet over the net and comes down the middle between the setter and spiker; occasionally used interchangeably with the 31 sets.  
  4. Regular Set generally comes down near the sideline (vertical tape marker).
  5. SET also called Shoot set – A medium-low set that travels 2-4 feet over the net and comes down near the sideline. 31 SET – A low, prompt set (generally in zone #3) just over the net.

Setter - Also called Tosser, refers to a player who is responsible to take the second touch and placed the ball to a position it can be easily attacked.

Setting Zones - Organize team patterns such as Option four which is intended to isolate the left front spiker, second Double Quick, to isolate the right front spiker and X PLAY to isolate the right front spiker shooting from the middle front position. 

Shade - An adjustment earlier than a rally by blockers.  To either sideline, blockers take one or two steps and create a position that gives them a small advantage on an attacker they think possibly set.

Shallow - This term is often used to describe a pass or set, refereeing a ball, which is very close to the net. 

Shank - This refers to an imperfect pass or extremely misdirected pass.

Short Serve - A technique wherein the server serves the ball into zone 2, 3, or 4 (right front, middle front and left front correspondingly) preferably within the 3-meter line.  It is planned to disturb a team’s offense by pulling attackers out of a perfect position for an approach.

Shoot - A quick set, deliberately low, to a hitter, which is a distance away from the setter.

Side Out - Interchange of service when a serving team has not successfully scored a point or commits an unforced error.

Side-Out Scoring - A scoring format where points can be earned only by the serving team.

Sidelines - The two lines approximately 60 feet in length and two inches wide are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the net. 

Six Pack - A spiked ball, which strikes the face or head of the blocker.

Six Two - An offense that includes six players and two setters opposite each other on the rotation.

Sizzle The Pits - A spike, which whizzes past players' raised arms.

Sky Ball - An underhand serve which travels the ball high above the net and straight down.

Slide / Step - This refers to a prompt attack behind the setter.

Softspikes - A spike executed with significantly less force than a regular spike, generally very carefully placed. It is used to ear some strategic advantage.

Spike - This term either refers to a forceful way to return the ball across the net, generally the third contact by a team inside its court or the activity of jumping in the air and striking a set ball from over the level of the net.

Spike Coverage - A position set by the offensive players to field any ball rebounding from the block, while the spiker spikes it.

Spiker - This refers to the offensive player who drives the ball over the net (spiking) into the opponent’s court.

Split Block - A team technique wherein there is an intentionally wide space left between the blockers. Space might be approx. 1-4 feet.

Sprawl - A defensive approach where a player’s forearm is on the floor while moving forward or side to side, stopping the ball from contacting the floor.  In the end, if it is executed properly, the player will be sprawled out on his/her stomach.

Strong Side - This term indicates spiking or attack zones along with the net. The left-hand side of the net is a strong side for a right-handed spiker and the right side of the net is a strong side for a left-handed spiker.

Stuff - A ball, which is deflected back to the floor of the attacking team by the opponent’s blockers. In simple terms, it is a block, which scores a point.

Substitute - Replacement of one player with another player on the court.

Swing Block - The basic definition for Swing Blocking is an attempt to get more vertical on the block, to lift the height of the block by using an approaching sequence.

Swing Offense - Bill Neville and Doug Beal introduce swing offense in 1984 Olympics, in which one or two swing strikers who are capable to hit multiple sets in multiple net zones are used to fool blockers by seldom striking the same set twice.  They perhaps pass a ball on the net’s left side and attack a ball on the right.

Switch - An intentionally planned swapping of positions on the court. It can occur only after the ball is contacted by the server. Generally switching takes place amongst the players, which are in the same zones of the court, for example back row players swap their position with back-row players only, front row players switch their position with front row players only.


Tandem - A combination wherein one player attacks straight away behind another.

Tape - This term describes the top of the net.

Team Pattern - The coordinated arrangement of a team either on offense or on defense.

Teams - Six player’s group playing on one half of the court.

Technique Man - This refers to a spiker who also plays the role of a secondary setter.

Telegraph - Making a planned play obvious to an opposing team that allows them to prepare in advance.

Three-hitter Attack - An offensive method wherein all three frontcourt players are supposed to attack and a back-row player is used as the setter.

Three-meter Line - The line widening across the court to show the point that a back-row player must leave the ground behind to attack the ball. Also known as “attack line” and 10-foot line.

Tip - A one-handed, gentle hit into the opposing team’s court using the fingertips. Even called a dink.

Tool - When players attack a ball intentionally to stop the blockers hands/forearms and score a point.

Top Spin - An advance spin applied on the ball during the serve or spike.

Toss - An international phrase use to describe the set, alike tosser means setter.

Touch - When a player contacts the ball on the defensive play.

Trajectory - The object’s trajectory, for instance, a ball, must follow the pathway of a parabola unless an object is subject to outside forces. Deviations are of two types that generally act upon the parabolic arc of volleyball: 1 – Any spin put upon the ball results the deviation in a predictable direction. 2 – Without spin the ball might deviate from the theoretical path in a random manner.

Transition Words - The team’s movement since it varies from one team pattern to another. For example, the team varies from offense to defense or from defense to offense.

Trap Set - A low, tense set close to the net.

Triple Block - Using the three present blockers at the same time to block an attacker.  Usually, take place on out of system sets where the intentions of setter are clear before time. Even used to prevent a dominant attacker.

Tuna - This term is used to describe a net violation.

Turn In - The end blocker’s act to turn a hand toward the court to stop the spiker from striking the ball off the block and out of bounds.

Two-hitter Attack - A term usually applied when playing the 4-2 or 6-6 offenses.


Umpire - An official who helps out the referee by staying on their opposite floor.

Underhand Pass - When the player passes the ball by using the forearms, the hands held together and arms locked at the elbows to deliver the ball to the setter or attacker. Also called the forearm pass.

Underhand Serve - A serve wherein the server tosses the ball, some extent to the waist-high and hit it with his opposite hand in an underhand motion.

USAV - Short for United States Volleyball Association, the volleyball governing body in the United States.

USVBA - Short for United States Volleyball Association that includes twenty organizations sponsoring major volleyball activities. It was established in 1928, having headquarters in San Fransisco, CA. 


Vertical Tape Markers - A 2-inch strip of material (tape of canvas) fastened vertically on each side of the net, directly above the sidelines and marking the side boundary lines of the court.

Volley - The series of actions while the ball is in play. The volley starts with the service and ends when the ball is dead.


W Serve-receive Formation - This refers to the playing formation that includes three players in the front row and two in the back.

Waffle - When a player attacks the ball without any spin, however, it travels far outside of the court. 

Weak Side - This refers to the right side of the court where most right-handed players can't attack from this side.

Whale - When a player hitting the ball carelessly without any regard to strategy. Also known as "princess" or "prince”.

White Defense - Also called MIDDLE- BACK DEEP DEFENSE, a defensive arrangement displaying two blockers at the net and four men in a cup shape near the court perimeter. The middle back remains at the end-line and is responsible for all the deep shots.

Wipe - Hitting a ball in a way that it hits a block and tool out of bounds.

Wipe Off Shot - A spike, which is intentionally deflected off the blocker’s hands. Generally a soft spike.


Yellowcard - When a player or a coach of any team violated the rule, the Yellow card is shown to them by the official as a warning of misconduct. Two yellow cards cause an automatic red card.


Zones Of The Net Area - The volleyball net is separated into a symmetrical system of nine zones, for example, A 23, where the first digit i.e. 2 indicates the zone wherein the set start, while the second digit 3 denotes the height of the set.

Zone Of Effectiveness - The playing area wherein the player has more possibility of making a successful play.

The 888sport blog, based at 888 Towers in the heart of London, employs an army of betting and tipping experts for your daily punting pleasure, as well as an irreverent, and occasionally opinionated, look at the absolute madness that is the world of sport.